Research Paper

Additions to the orchid flora of Laos and taxonomic notes on orchids of the Indo-Burma region

Pankaj Kumar, Stephan W. Gale, Henrik Æ. Pedersen, Thatsaphone Phaxaysombath, Somsanith Bouamanivong and Gunter A. Fischer

Published on: 21 March 2018

DOI: 10.6165/tai.2018.63.61

PDF Download pdf

2018 vol.63 no.1 pp.61-83



Agrawala, D.K., M.U. Sharief and B.K. Singh. 2016. Bulbophyllum paramjitii (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Malaxideae): a new species from Sikkim Himalaya, India. Phytotaxa 273(1): 72-76.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.273.1.8View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Ashton, P. 2015. On the forests of Tropical Asia, lest the memory fade. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 670 pp.

Averyanov, L.V. 2010a. Three new species of orchids (Orchidaceae) from Vietnam. Taiwania 55(2): 91-98.
DOI: 10.6165/tai.2010.55(2).91View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Averyanov, L.V. 2010b. The orchids of Vietnam, Illustrated survey Part 2, Subfamily Orchidoideae. Turczaninowia 13(2): 5-98.

Averyanov, L.V. 2012. New orchid taxa and records in the flora of Vietnam. Taiwania 57(2): 127-152.
DOI: 10.6165/tai.2012.57(2).127View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Averyanov, L.V. and A.L. Averyanova. 2006. New orchids from Vietnam. Komarovia 4: 1-35.

Averyanov, L.V. 2013. New and rare orchids (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Cambodia and Laos. Turczaninowia 16(4): 26-46.
DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.16.4.7View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Averyanov, L.V., J. Ponert, P.T. Nguyen, N.V. Duy, N.S. Khang and V.C. Nguyen. 2016c. A survey of Dendrobium Sw. sect. Formosae (Benth. & Hook.f.) Hook.f. in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Adansonia 38(2): 199-217.
DOI: 10.5252/a2016n2a5View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Averyanov, L.V., K.N. Sinh, T.H. Nguyen, T.V. Pham and S. Lorphengsy. 2014. Paphiopedilum canhii in Laos Phou Phachao Mountain

Averyanov, L.V., K.S. Nguyen, T.V. Maisak, E.L. Konstantinov, T.H. Nguyen and S. Bounphanmy. 2016b. New and rare orchids (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Cambodia and Laos. Turczaninowia 19(3): 5-58.

Averyanov, L.V., K.S. Nguyen, V.D. Nong, V.C. Nguyen, B.V. Truong and T.V. Maisak. 2017. Bulbophyllum sect. Hirtula in eastern Indochina. Taiwania 62(1): 1-23.
DOI: 10.6165/tai.2017.62.1View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Averyanov, L.V., N.T. Tich and N.V. Canh. 2015. New species of the genus Cleisostoma in the flora of Vietnam. Taiwania 60(3): 107-116.
DOI: 10.6165/tai.2015.60.107View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Averyanov, L.V., P.K. Loc, P.V. The and N.T. Hiep. 2012. Lockia sonii and Schoenorchis scolopendria: two species from the limestone region of northwestern Vietnam new to science. Orchids 81(6): 362-371.

Averyanov, L.V., V.D. Nong, K.S. Nguyen, T.V. Maisak, V.C. Nguyen, Q.T. Phan, P.T. Nguyen, T.T. Nguyen and B.V. Truong. 2016a. New species of orchids (Orchidaceae) in the Flora of Vietnam. Taiwania 61(4): 319-354.
DOI: 10.6165/tai.2016.61.319View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Balakrishnan, N.P. 1970. Nomenclatural notes on some flowering plants II. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 67: 57-66.

Barretto, G., P.J. Cribb and S.W. Gale. 2011. The wild orchids of Hong Kong. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu & Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong. 697 pp.

Blanco, F.M. 1837. Flora de Filipinas: segun el sistema sexual de Linneo /por el P. Fr. Manuel Blanco, Agustino Calzado. Impienta de D.M. Sanchez, Manila. 619 pp.

Blatter, E. and C. McCann. 1932. Revision of the flora of the Bombay Presidency. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 36 (1): 13-28.

Chase, M.W., K.M. Cameron, J.V. Freudenstein, A.M. Pridgeon, G. Salazar, C.V.D. Berg and A. Schuiteman. 2015. An updated classification of Orchidaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 77: 151-174.
DOI: 10.1111/boj.12234View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Chen, X. Q., Z.-J. Liu, G. Zhu, K. Lang, Z. Ji, Y.-B. Luo, X. Jin, P.J. Cribb, J.J. Wood, S.W. Gale, P. Ormerod, J.J. Vermeulen, H.P. Wood, D. Clayton and A. Bell. 2009. Orchidaceae. In: Wu Z.Y. et al. (eds), Flora of China 25 (Orchidaceae). Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. pp. 1-570.

Chowdhery, H.J. 1998. Orchid flora of Arunachal Pradesh. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun. 824 pp.

Clayton, D. 2017. Charles Parish - plant hunter and botanical artist in Burma. The Ray Society, London in association with The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 278 pp.

Dietrich, D.N.F. 1852. Synopsis plantarum; seu, Enumeratio systematica plantarum plerumque adhuc cognitarum cum differentiis specificis et synonymis selectis ad modum Persoonii elaborate. B.F.Voigtii, Vimariae.

Downie. D.G. 1925. Contributions to the flora of Siam. Additamentum XVII. Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1925(10): 404-423
DOI: 10.2307/4115102View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Forster, J.G.A. 1786. Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus. Go?ttingen, Germany. 103 pp.
DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.10725View Article

Gagnepain, F. 1950. Orchidac?es nouvelles d

Gale, S., A. Bizid, L.K. Wai and K. Chan. 2014. A guide to orchids of Hong Kong. Natural History Publications (Borneo). 168 pp.

Gale, S.W. and T. Phaxaysombath. 2017. Studies in Asian Nervilia (Orchidaceae) VII: Nervilia kasiensis, a new Lao endemic. Blumea 62 (1): 1-5.
DOI: 10.3767/000651917X694732View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Gale, S.W., A. Schuiteman, S. Watthana, T. Sando, K. Souvannakhoummane, L.V. Averyanov and S. Suddee. 2016. Studies in Asian Nervilia (Nervilieae, Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) VI: N. mekongensis, a new species from Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Phytotaxa 247(4): 267-273.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.247.4.4View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Garay, L.A. 1986. Olim Vanillaceae. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 30: 223-238.

Garay, L.A., F. Hamer and E.S. Siegerist. 1994. The genus Cirrhopetalum and the genera of the Bulbophyllum alliance. Nordic J. Bot. 14(6): 609-646.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.1994.tb01080.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Gardiner, L.M. 2012. New combinations in the genus Vanda (Orchidaceae). Phytotaxa 61(1): 47-54.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.61.1.4View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Gardiner, L.M., A. Kocyan, M. Motes, D.L. Roberts and B.C. Emerson. 2013. Molecular phylogenetics of Vanda and related genera (Orchidaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 173(4): 549-572.
DOI: 10.1111/boj.12102View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Govaerts, R., M.A. Campacci, D.H. Baptista, P.J. Cribb, A. George, K. Kreutz and J.J. Wood. 2017. World Checklist of Orchidaceae. Electronic version accessed on 20 April 2017.

Gregg, K.B. 1983. Variation in floral fragrances and morphology: incipient speciation in Cycnoches? Bot. Gaz. 144(4): 566-576.
DOI: 10.1086/337412View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Griffith, W. 1851. Notulae ad plantas asiaticas Volume 5, part 3. Bishop's college Press, Calcutta. Gru?, O., N. Rungruang, Y. Chaisuriyakul and I. Dionisio. 2014. The Paphiopedilum rungsuriyanum, eine neue Art aus Nord-Laos. Orchideen J. 21: 3-11.

Holttum, R.E. 1953. Orchids of Malaya, Flora of Malaya 1. Government Printer, Singapore. 793 pp.

Hooker, J.D. 1883. Dendrobium cariniferum var. wattii. Bot. Mag. 109, ser. 3 39: t. 6715.

Hooker, J.D. 1890a. Bulbophyllum confertum. Hooker's Icon. Pl. 21: t. 2035.

Hooker, J.D. 1890b. Orchidaceae In: Fl. Brit. India (J. D. Hooker) 5. Ashford, Kent. pp. 667-858.

Hooker, J.D. 1895a. A century of Indian Orchids. Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 5: 1-68.

Hooker, J.D. 1895b. Habenaria gibsoni. Hooker's Icon. Pl. t. 2319.

Hu, A.-Q., S.W. Gale, P. Kumar, R.M.K. Saunders, M. Sun and G.A. Fischer. 2017a. Preponderance of clonality triggers loss of sex in Bulbophyllum bicolor, an obligately outcrossing epiphytic orchid. Molec. Ecol. 26(13): 3358-3372.
DOI: 10.1111/mec.14139View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Hu, A.Q., D.P. Ye, S.W. Gale, R.M.K. Saunders, G.A. Fischer and J.W. Li. 2017b. Bulbophyllum jingdongense (Orchidaceae), a new species in the Cirrhopetalum alliance from South China and Laos. Phytotaxa 307(3): 199-204;
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.307.3.4View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Joseph, J. and H. Deka. 1973. Trias pusilla Joseph et H. Deka-a new species of orchid from Khasi and Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya (Assam). J. Indian Bot. Soc. 51: 378-380.

Kerr, A.D. 1969. On a collection of orchids from Laos. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 23 (1-2): 185-211.

Kerr, A.D. 1971. Further notes on Laotian orchids. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 24 (1-2): 153-162.

Kerr, A.D. 1973. A new species - Bulbophyllum seidenfadeni. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 42(5): 411-412.

Kerr, A.F.G. 1933a. A trip to Pu Bia in French Laos. J. Siam Soc., Nat. Hist. Suppl. 9(2): 193-223.

Kerr, A.F.G. 1933b. A collection of orchids from Laos. J. Siam Soc., Nat. Hist. Suppl. 9(2): 225-243.

Khuraijam, J.K. and R.K. Roy. 2015. A new species of Luisia Gaud. (Orchidaceae) from northwestern Bihar. India. Biodivers. J. 6(3): 699-702.

King, G. and R. Pantling. 1898. The orchids of Sikkim Himalaya. Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 1-342 & Pl. 1-144.

Kumar, C.S. and K.S. Manilal. 2004. Orchids of Kerala, India. In: Manilal K.S. and C.S.Kumar (eds.). Orchid memories: a tribute to Gunnar Seidenfaden. Mentor Books for Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy Calicut. pp. 155-254.

Kumar, C.S., B.V. Shetty, S.S.R. Bennet, T.A. Rao, S. Molur and S. Walker. 2001. Conservation Assessment and Management Plan Workshop Report Endemic Orchids of the Western Ghats. Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society & Zoo Outreach Organisation. 199 pp.

Kumar, P., J.S. Jalal and G.S. Rawat. 2007. Orchidaceae, Chotanagpur, state of Jharkhand, India. Check List 3(4): 297-304.
DOI: 10.15560/3.4.297View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Kumar, P., S.W. Gale, A. Schuiteman, S. Bouamanivong and G.A. Fischer. 2016. Identifying orchid hotspots for biodiversity conservation in Laos: the limestone karst vegetation of Vang Vieng District, Vientiane Province. J. Threat. Taxa 8(12): 9397-9417.
DOI: 10.11609/jott.2826.8.12.9397-9417View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Kuntze, O. 1891. Revis. Gen. Pl. A. Felix. Leipzig. 374 pp.

Kurzweil, H. 2009. The genus Habenaria (Orchidaceae) in Thailand. Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 37: 7-105.

Kurzweil, H. 2011. 15. Habenaria. In: Santisuk, T. and K. Larsen (eds), Flora of Thailand, Volume 12, Part 1: Orchidaceae 1 (Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, Vanilloideae). The Forest Herbarium, Bangkok. pp. 79-149.

Kurzweil, H. and S. Lwin. 2014. A guide to orchids of Myanmar. Natural History Publications (Borneo). 196 pp.

Li, G.Z. 1990. Two new species of plants from Guizhou. J. Wuhan Bot. Res. 1990: 142-146.

Li, J., S.W. Gale, P. Kumar, J. Zhang and G.A. Fischer. 2017. Prioritizing the orchids of a biodiversity hotspot for conservation based on phylogenetic history and extinction risk. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 186: (In press)
DOI: 10.1093/botlinnean/box084View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Lin, W.-M. and Y.-F. Wang. 2014. The wild orchids of Taiwan: An Illustrated Guide. KBCC Press, Taiwan. 923 pp.

Lindley, J. and J. Paxton. 1850. 99. Dendrobium crepidatum. Paxton's Fl. Gard. 1: 63.

Lindley, J. 1830
DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.499View Article

Lindley, J. 1838. 53. Cirrhopetalum caespitosum Wall mss. Edwards's Bot. Reg. 24(Misc.): 35.
DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.204View Article

Lindley, J. 1853. Folia Orchidacea: An enumeration of the known species of orchids, Vol. 4. J. Matthews, London. p. 3.

Liu, Q., S.-S. Zhou, R. Li, M.-X. Zhang, M. Zyaw, S. Lone and R.-C. Quan. 2017. Bulbophyllum putaoensis (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae; Malaxideae), a new species from Kachin State, Myanmar. Phytotaxa 305(1): 57-60.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.305.1.9View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Lucksom, S.Z. 2007. The orchids of Sikkim and north east Himalaya. Lucksom, Sikkim. 984 pp.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., S. Knapp, K. Marhold, J. Prado, W.F. Prud'homme Van Reine, G.F. Smith, J.H. Wiersema and N.J. Turland. 2012. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Electronic version accessed from on 28 March 2017.

Merrill, E.D. 1918. Sp. Blancoan. Bureau of Printing, Manilla. 423 pp.

Misra, S. 1998. Bulbophyllum and allied genera in orissa, India: Taxonomic review. J. Orchid Soc. India 11: 51-59.

Misra, S. 1986. Two new orchids from Orissa, India. Nord. J. Bot. 6(1): 25-29.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.1986.tb00856.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Misra, S. 2004. Orchids of Orissa. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun. 774 pp.

Misra, S. 2007. Orchids of India: A glimpse. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun. 402 pp. Mondrag?n?Palomino, M. and G. Thei?en. 2011. Conserved differential expression of paralogous DEFICIENS?and GLOBOSA?like MADS?box genes in the flowers of Orchidaceae: refining the
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04560.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Newman, M., S. Ketphanh, B. Svengsuksa, P. Thomas, K. Sengdala, V. Lamxay and K. Armstrong. 2007. A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 394 pp.

Parish, E.C. and H.G. Reichenbach. 1874. Enumeration of the orchids collected by the Rev. E.C.Parish in the neighbourhood of Moulmein, with descriptions of the new species. Trans. Linn. Soc. London 30(1): 133-155.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1874.tb00004.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Pearce, N.R. and P.J. Cribb. 2002. The orchids of Bhutan. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh and The Royal Government of Bhutan. 643 pp.

Pedersen, H.?. 2011a. Brachycorythis neglecta newly recorded for China and Laos. Orchid Rev. 119: 150-154.

Pedersen, H.?. 2011b. 36. Zeuxine. In: T. Santisuk & K. Larsen (eds), Flora of Thailand, Volume 12, Part 1: Orchidaceae 1 (Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, Vanilloideae). The Forest Herbarium, Bangkok. pp. 282-299.

Ponert, J., P. Tr?vn??ek, T.B. Vuong, R. Rybkov? and J. Suda. 2016. A new species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150631.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150631View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Pridgeon, A.M., P.J. Cribb, M.W. Chase and F. Rasmussen. 2014. Genera Orchidacearum: Volume 6: Epidendroideae (Part three). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 544 pp.

Rao, A.N. and K.J. Mani. 1985. Jejosephia Nageswara Rao et Mani (Orchidaceae)- a new genus from Meghalaya, India. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 7(1): 216-217.

Rao, A.N. 2017. A note on the correct identity of two orchid species of Northeast India. Pleione 11(1): 147-148.

Reichenbach, H.G. 1861. Bulbophyllum scabratum. W.G.Walpers, Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 259.

Reichenbach, H.G. 1878. Bulbophyllum psychoon. Gard. Chron. 2: 170.

Reichenbach, H.G. 1887 Dendrobium wattii. Gard. Chron. 4: 725-726.

Ridley, H.N. 1907. Materials for the flora of Malayan Peninsula 1. Singapore. 233 pp.
DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.10758View Article

Roxburgh, W. 1814. Hortus Bengalensis: A catalogue of the plants growing in the honorable East India Company

Rudall, P.J. and R.M. Bateman. 2003. Evolutionary change in flowers and inflorescences: evidence from naturally occurring terata. Trends Plant Sci. 8(2): 76-82.
DOI: 10.1016/S1360-1385(02)00026-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Rundel, P.W. 1999. Forest habitats and flora in Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Conservation Priorities in Indochina WWF desk study. WWF, Hanoi. 171 pp.

Schettler, R. and P.D. Minh. 2016. A new species of Dendrobium Blume from Vietnam. Orchideen J. 4(1): 1-5.

Schlechter, R. 1924. Orchidaceae novae et criticae. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 19: 372-383.
DOI: 10.1002/fedr.19240192203View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Schuiteman, A. and E.F. de Vogel. 2000. Orchid genera of Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden. 229 pp.

Schuiteman, A. 2013. Orchids of Laos. In: J. Elliott et al. (Eds.) Proceedings of 20th World Orchid Conference Singapore 2011. National Parks Board & Orchid Society of South East Asia, Singapore. pp. 523-533.

Schuiteman, A. and P.B. Adams. 2011. New combinations in Dendrobium (Orchidaceae). Muelleria 29(1): 62-68.

Schuiteman, A. and P. Bonnet. 2009. Holcoglossum calcicola und Paphiopedilum barbigerum var. sulivongii: Zwei attractive neue Orchideen der Kalksteinberge von Laos. Orchideen J. 2009: 1-8.

Schuiteman, A and P. Bonnet. 2014. Habenaira svengsuksae: Eine neue Art aus Laos. Orchideen J. 2014: 26-29.

Schuiteman, A., P. Bonnet, B. Svengsuksa and D. Barthel?my. 2008. An annotated checklist of the Orchidaceae of Laos. Nordic J. Bot. 26 (5-6): 257-316.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2008.00265.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Seidenfaden, G. 1966. On a small collection of orchids from Laos. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 21(1-2): 63-67.

Seidenfaden, G. 1971. Notes on the genus Luisia. Dansk Bot. Ark. 27(4): 1-101.

Seidenfaden, G. 1972. An enumeration of Laotian orchids. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Ser. 3, Bot. 5(71): 101-152.

Seidenfaden, G. 1973a. Notes on Cirrhopetalum Lindl. Dansk Bot. Ark. 29(1): 1-260.

Seidenfaden, G. 1973b. Contributions to the orchid flora of Thailand-V. Bot. Tidsskr. 68 (1): 41-95.

Seidenfaden, G. 1975a. Contributions to a revision of the orchid flora of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam I. A preliminary enumeration of all orchids hitherto recorded. Kai Olsen, Fredensborg. 117 pp.

Seidenfaden, G. 1975b. Orchid genera in Thailand II. Cleisostoma Bl. Dansk Bot. Ark. 29(3): 1-80.

Seidenfaden, G. 1975c. Orchid genera in Thailand III. Coelogyne Lindl. Dansk Bot. Ark. 29(4): 1-94.

Seidenfaden, G. 1977. Orchid Genera of Thailand V: Orchidoideae. Dansk Bot. Ark. 31(3): 1-149.

Seidenfaden, G. 1978. Orchid genera in Thailand VI. Neottioideae. Dansk Bot. Ark. 32(2): 1-191.

Seidenfaden, G. 1979. Orchid genera of Thailand VIII: Bulbophyllum Thou. Dansk Bot. Ark. 33(3): 1-227, t. 1-6.

Seidenfaden, G. 1985. Orchid genera of Thailand XII: Dendrobium Sw. Opera Bot. 83: 1-295.

Seidenfaden, G. 1992. The orchids of Indochina. Opera Bot. 114: 1-502.

Seidenfaden, G. 1997. Contributions to the orchid flora of Thailand

Seidenfaden, G. and T. Smitinand. 1965. Orchids of Thailand, a preliminary checklist. Siam Society. 870 pp.

Seidenfaden, G. and J.J. Wood. 1992. The orchids of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg. 779 pp.

Seidenfaden, G. and H.?. Pedersen. 2003. Contributions to the orchid flora of Thailand XIV. Nordic J. Bot. 22 (5): 525-534.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2002.tb01910.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Smith, J.J. 1912. Bulbophyllum Thou. Sect. Cirrhopetalum. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg II (viii): 19-29.

Su, H.-J. 2000. Orchidaceae. In: Huang, T.-C. (ed.), Flora of Taiwan, 2nd ed. 5. Editorial Committee, Department of Botany, NTU, Taipei, Taiwan. pp. 729-1086.

Suetsugu, K., A. Kawakita and M. Kato. 2015. Avian seed dispersal in a mycoheterotrophic orchid Cyrtosia septentrionalis. Nature Plants 1: 15052.
DOI: 10.1038/nplants.2015.52View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Svengsuksa, B. and V. Lamxay. 2005. Field guide to the orchids of Lao PDR. National University of Lao PDR, Vientiane. 185 pp.

Tang, C.Z. and S.J.Cheng. 1985. A new species of Phaius (Orchidaceae) from South China. Bulletin of Botanical Research 5: 141-143.

Telepova, M. 2013. Doritis bourbetii Telepova sp. nov., Doritis pulcherrima f. cinnabarina Telepova f. nov. deux nouveaux taxons lithophytes du Cambodge. Rhode-Alpes Orchidees 50: 6-15.

Tordoff, A.W., M.R. Bezuijen, J.W. Duckworth, J.R. Fellowes, K. Koenig, E.H.B. Pollard and A.G. Royo. 2011. Ecosystem profile: Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. 360 pp.

Vatsala, P. 1974. An abnormal orchid from South India. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 43(11): xxii-xxiv.

Verma, D., H.A. Barbhuiya and S. Lavania. 2014. Bulbophyllum cherrapunjeensis (Orchidaceae), a new species from Meghalaya. Phytotaxa 156 (5): 298-300.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.156.5.6View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Verma, D., S. Lavania and S.K. Singh. 2015. Bulbophyllum chyrmangensis (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae), a new species from Meghalaya, Northeast India. Phytotaxa 195 (1): 94-97.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.195.1.9View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Vermeulen, J., P. O'Byrne and A. Lamb. 2015. Bulbophyllum of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu. 728 pp.

Vermeulen, J.J., A. Schuiteman and E.F.De Vogel. 2014. Nomenclatural changes in Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae; Epidendroideae). Phytotaxa 166 (2): 101-113.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.166.2.1View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Vij, S.P., J. Verma and C.S. Kumar. 2013. Orchids of Himachal Pradesh. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. 275 pp.

Wang, J.-Y., Z.-J. Liu, X.-Y. Wu and J.-X. Huang. 2017. Bulbophyllum lipingtaoi, a new orchid species from China: evidence from morphological and DNA analyses. Phytotaxa 295 (3): 218-226.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.295.3.2View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Willdenow, C.L. 1805. Species Plantarum, Edition 5. Berolini. 629 pp.

Wood, H.P. 2006. The Dendrobiums. A.R.G.Gantner Verlag, Ruggell. 996 pp.

Xiang, X., D. Li, X. Jin, H. Hu, H. Zhou, W. Jin and Y. Lai. 2012. Monophyly or Paraphyly - The Taxonomy of Holcoglossum (Aeridinae: Orchidaceae). PLoS ONE 7 (12): e52050.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052050View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Xu, Q., G.-Q. Zhang, X.-Y. Wu, L.-J. Chen and Z.-J. Liu. 2016. Dendrobium maguanense (Orchidaceae; Epidendroideae), a new species from China: evidence from morphology and DNA. Phytotaxa 286(1): 47-53.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.286.1.6View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Xu, Q., G.-Q. Zhang, Z.-J. Liu and Y.-B. Luo. 2014. Two new species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae) from China: evidence from morphology and DNA. Phytotaxa 174(3): 129-143.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.174.3.1View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Zhai, J.-W., G.-Q. Zhang, L. Li, M. Wang, L.-J. Chen, S.-W. Chung, F.J. Rodr?guez, J. Francisco-Ortega, S.-R. Lan, F.-W. Xing and Z.-J. Liu. 2014. A new phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationships in the Calanthe alliance (Orchidaceae) in China. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 77: 216-222.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.04.005View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Zhang G.-Q., K.-W. Liu, L.-J. Chen, X.-J. Xiao, J.-W. Zhai, L.-Q. Li, J. Cai, Y.-Y. Hsiao, W.-H. Rao, J. Huang, X.-Y. Ma, S.-W. Chung, L.-Q. Huang, W.-C. Tsai and Z.-J. Liu. 2013. A new molecular phylogeny and a new genus, Pendulorchis, of the Aerides-Vanda Alliance (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae). PLoS ONE 8(4): e60097.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060097View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Zhu, G., J. Zhanhe, J.J. Wood and H.P. Wood. 2009. Dendrobium. In: Wu, Z.Y. et al. (eds), Flora of China 25 (Orchidaceae). Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. pp. 367-397.