第一版臺灣植物誌
Flora of Taiwan, 1st edition

第一版臺灣植物誌

1969年1月中美雙方政府簽訂一項關於學術合作的協定,共同編纂臺灣植物誌。編輯委員於1973年組成,成員包括李惠林、劉棠瑞、黃增泉、小山鐵夫、棣慕華等五位教授。全部六卷在1975年至1979年之間陸續出版完成,包括Vol. 1.(562頁)、Vol. 2.(722頁)、Vol. 3.(1000頁)、Vol. 4.(994頁)、Vol. 5(1166頁)、Vol. 6(665頁)。內容涵蓋233 科、1355屬、及4220種之學名、形態描述、檢索、插圖、引證標本、分佈地區、總名錄、索引等。該植物誌是對臺灣維管束植物記述最詳盡的著作,屬英文版。此為台灣分類學者共同努力的成果,為國內外從事自然資源經營管理、農林產業、教育及學術研究等眾多人士所必備之書籍,目前常與第二版臺灣植物誌互相對照使用。由於各卷早已售罄,因此數位化提供網上查詢瀏覽及下載為時勢所趨。

Flora of Taiwan, 1stt edition

In January 1969, the United States and Taiwan governments signed an official agreement of academic collaboration to publish the first edition of Flora of Taiwan. The editorial committee was founded in 1973 and composed of five professors: Hui-lin Li, Tang-shui Liu, Tseng-chieng Huang, Tetso Koyama and Charles. E. Devol. This edition of Flora of Taiwan, completed and published between 1975 and 1979, includes six volumes. There are 562 pages in Volume One, 722 pages in Volume Two, 1,000 pages in Volume Three, 994 pages in Volume Four, 1,166 pages in Volume Five, 665 pages in Volume Six, and more than 5,000 pages in total. The contents include the accepted names and synonyms, descriptions of all taxa, indented dichotomous keys to different taxa, citation of herbarium collections, geographical ranges and habitats, bibliographical references, illustrations and color photographs, directory, and index, covering 233 families, 1,355 genera and 4,220 species of indigenous vascular plants in Taiwan. Written in English, the publication is not only the most completed inventory of vascular plants in Taiwan but also a major achievement and a collaborate work of Taiwanese scholars in plant taxonomy. It is a useful reference book for researchers working on natural resources management, agriculture and forestry industry, education and academic research. It also works as providing a reference to the second edition of Flora of Taiwan. Because the publication is already out of print, the digitization of the first edition of Flora of Taiwan for further online searching, browsing and downloading seems to be right for the time.

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第二版臺灣植物誌
Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition

第二版臺灣植物誌

第二版臺灣植物誌的修訂,是行政院國家科學委員會於 1984 年,委託黃增泉主持規劃《台灣植物誌》事宜。作者以國內學者為主,並集合美、日、荷蘭、澳洲、新加坡、中國等地共約百位學者共同參與,歷經近十二年完成,計六卷,屬英文版,於1993-2003年間分別出版。內容共收錄 4,339 種植物之學名、形態描述、檢索、引證標本、分佈地區、相關文獻、插圖照片,總名錄及索引等。其中有 4,077 種原產於臺灣,1,067 種為臺灣特有,未見於世界其他地方,262 種為歸化或重要外來植物。另外對於台灣植物之組成、特有性及其親緣關係有詳細之說明。「台灣植物誌第二版」於2004年榮獲國際植物分類學會 (International Association for Plant Taxonomy, IAPT) 頒發「恩格勒銀質獎章」 (Engler Silver Medal) 。

Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition

The National Science Council asked Professor Tseng-chieng Huang to take in charge of the revision of Flora of Taiwan in 1984. The editors of the second edition of Flora of Taiwan were composed of about 100 scholars, mainly from Taiwan but also including scholars from the United States, Japan, the Netherlands, Australia, Singapore, and China. The publication is written in English, a total of six volumes of completion from 1993 to 2003 in nearly twelve years. The content of this edition includes the accepted names and synonyms, descriptions of all taxa, indented dichotomous keys to different taxa, citation of herbarium collections, geographical ranges and habitats, bibliographical references, illustrations and color photographs, directory, and index of total 4,339 species. Including 1,067 endemic species in Taiwan, there are 4,077 of indigenous species and 262 naturalized and important introduced species documented in the publication. The second edition of Flora of Taiwan also incorporates detail descriptions of the vegetation, uniqueness of flora, and chromosomal information in the documentation. In 2004, the second edition of Flora of Taiwan was awarded "Engler Silver Medal" by International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT).

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臺灣植物圖譜
(早田文藏)
Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum (by Bunzo Hayata)

臺灣植物圖譜(早田文藏)

早田文藏於1905年至1924年長達十九年之間十幾度到台灣從事台灣植物調查。於1911-1921年陸續發表「台灣植物圖譜」十卷,為早田文藏不朽之著作,發表後令西方學者大為驚嘆。該十卷書收錄1854-1895年間西洋人所收集及發表的一千餘種台灣植物以及1895年之後日本學者所發表的物種。總計所記錄的植物計有170科、1197屬、3568種及79變種,其中1200種為台灣之新發現種。每種均有詳盡之拉丁文描述、文獻、產地及插圖,具永久之參考價值。本圖譜目前台灣僅存三套,且書況不佳,翻動時易損毀,須早日完成數位化。

Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum (by Bunzo Hayata)

Bunzo Hayata visited Taiwan more than a dozen times to investigate the local flora between 1905 and 1924. During the ten-year period of 1911-1921, he published ten volumes of Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum, which amazed the western world. This masterpiece documented the thousands of plant species collected by European explorers from 1854 to 1895 and species collected by Japanese scholars after 1895. Total plants in records include 170 families, 1,197 genera, 3,568 species and 79 varieties, of which 1,200 species were newly discovered in Taiwan. The documentations of these plant species are with highly referential values including detailed descriptions in Latin, bibliography, habitats and illustrations. In Taiwan, the copies of Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum are found only three sets and all in poor shape. It damages every time when readers turn the pages. The early completion of the digitization will be necessary.

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續臺灣植物圖譜(山本由松)
Supplementa Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum (by Yoshimatsu Yamamoto)

續臺灣植物圖譜(山本由松)

「續台灣植物圖譜」為臺北帝國大學植物標本館山本由松博士所著,山本由松1923年自東京帝大理學部植物學科畢業,為早田文藏之學生,1928年起任教於臺北帝國大學理學部。山本由松早年擔任早田文藏助手,即參與臺灣植物研究,並於 1925-1932年間陸續發表「續台灣植物圖譜」五卷,為早田文藏「台灣植物圖譜」之接續版,記載1922至1932年間所發現之新種及新記錄種。每一新種均有詳盡之拉丁文描述、文獻、產地及插圖,其中最有名的為列入文化資產保存法所指定的台灣珍貴稀有植物『南湖大山柳葉菜』。

Supplementa Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum (by Yoshimatsu Yamamoto)

Supplementa Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum is the publication of Dr. Yoshimatsu Yamamoto, director of Taihoku Imperial University Herbarium. Yoshimatsu Yamamoto, a student of Bunzo Hayata, graduated in 1923 from Department of Botany, Tokyo Imperial University. Yoshimatsu Yamamoto assisted Bunzo Hayata exploring the flora of Taiwan then in 1928 started teaching at Department of Science in Taihoku Imperial University. Yoshimatsu Yamamoto published five volumes of Supplementa Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum between 1925 and 1932. This publication added the newly discovered species during 1922 -1932 period to provide a supplement to Hayata’s Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum. The documentation of each new species includes detailed descriptions in Latin, literatures, habitats and illustrations. The most well-known species is Epilobium nankotaizanense Yamamoto which is the rare and valuable species listed by Culture Heritage Preservation Act in Taiwan.

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福爾摩沙植物名錄(奧古斯汀亨利)
A List of Plants from Formosa (by Augustine Henry)

福爾摩沙植物名錄(奧古斯汀亨利)

愛爾蘭醫生奧古斯汀亨利(Henry, Augustine)於1892-1895年間來到台灣,進行大規模之植物採集工作,其主要的採集範圍是在台灣南部,計有打狗(Takow)、壽山(Ape's Hill)、萬金庄(Bankin-sing)、鵝鑾鼻(South Cape)、台南(Tainan)、安平(Anping)及淡水等地區。所收集的標本全數送回英國倫敦之皇家植物園(Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew)標本館,副份標本則分送歐美一些著名的植物標本館分別收藏,以供分類學者研究發表之用。隨後他整理1854年以來西洋人來台採集發表的所有資料,於1896年在東京發表「A List of Plants from Formosa, 福爾摩沙植物名錄」。文中包括顯花植物628屬、1,288種(其中81種為栽培植物及20種為歸化植物),隱花植物149種,總計1,347種,是台灣最早也是最有系統的著作。

A List of Plants from Formosa (by Augustine Henry)

Irish doctors Augustine Henry came to Taiwan to carry out large-scale plants collecting work in the years of 1892-1895. The geographical coverage is mainly in southern Taiwan, including Takow (Kaohsiung), Ape's Hill(Shoushan), Zhuang Bankin-sing (Wanjin), South Cape (Eluanpi), Tainan, Anping and Danshuei. All specimens collected are stored in the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew in the United Kingdom. Co-specimens were sent to the prestigious herbariums in Europe and the United States for taxonomy research. He then published A List of Plants from Formosa in Tokyo in 1896. This publication documented the information of Taiwan’s indigenous plant species, collected by European explorers since 1854, which is the earliest and most systematic publication about the flora of Taiwan. The sum total of the plant collection in this book is 1,347 species including 628 genera and 1,288 species of phanerogams (of which are 81 species from cultivation and 20 species of from naturalization), and 149 species of cryptogams.

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中國農曆之月花與花神(楊再義)
Flowers and Flower Deities of the Months in Chinese Lunar Calendar (by Chai-yi Yang)

中國農曆之月花與花神(楊再義)

歷來對月花與花神的選封都存有多種說法,其中對花神有正式議定的是清代的學者俞曲園,其餘的多是畫家以畫選封,並未用文字多加說明。至於現代的花神著作,則以介紹為主,或是以神話故事的角度來予以鋪陳。本書結合作者對植物學多年的研究心得、對繪畫欣賞的喜好,以及令人著迷的中國文學與神話傳說,來對這一課題作一完整的論述與介紹。文中為了讀者的閱讀方便,特地將難念的字詞標上「注音」,比較深奧的古代詞句則加註解釋或白話翻譯。此外作者特別請楊國禎博士負責植物攝影方面的工作,許秋容博士畫製植物插圖,邱錫勳先生與邱若龍先生父子共同繪製男花神,陳樂真小姐繪製女花神。全書剛完成作者即逝世,文稿存於本標本館。為免遺珠之憾,特公諸於網路,以饗讀者。

Flowers and Flower Deities of the Months in Chinese Lunar Calendar (by Chai-yi Yang)

From the earliest time there have been many legends associated with flowers of the months and their flower deities. The only official description of flower deities appeared in the writings of Qing scholar Chu-yuan Yu (Yue Yu), though many artists had their own choices in the art works. While most current writings on flower deities are either in a brief introduction or embodied in myths, Chai-yi Yang’s book has a complete discussion and depiction on this topic, with a combination of the botanical research, art interpretation, and fantastic Chinese literatures and myths. Phonetic symbols, citations and contemporary interpretations are included in the context for readers’ convenience. The author specifically requested Dr. Yang Kuo-chen in charge of plant photography, as well as the contributions of plant illustrations from Dr. Chiu-rong Hsu, male God drawings from Mr. Hsi-hsun Chiu and Mr. Ruolong Chiu, and female God drawings from Miss Ler-chen Chen. The author unfortunately passed away just after the completion of the book. The manuscripts, currently stored in TAI Herbarium, are digitized and disseminated on-line for the public.

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Kudoa

Kudoa

Kudoa 是由臺北帝國大學植物標本館正宗嚴敬、鈴木時夫、福山伯明等所發起,以紀念1932年過世的理農學部植物分類學講座及首任館長工藤祐舜 ( Yushun Kudo)。Kudoa為一套以日文為主之手抄本期刊,於1933年初刊,至1937年為止計五卷,每卷含四期。內容以收錄臺灣本地分類學與生態學的研究成果為主,如各地區的植物相、植物名錄,偶爾也有其他地區的研究文章。除了研究報告之外,大部分卷期都有附加的「抄錄」、「雜報」兩項;前者是每次選錄數篇被認為值得推介的論文,以日文敘述其大意,其來源與涵蓋內容及地區等頗為多樣;後者則包括了各種主題的談話會,以及編輯或發行之事務報告等等。

Kudoa

Kudoa is a series of manuscripts, created by Genkei Masamune, Tokio Suzuki and Noriaki Fukuyama of Taihoku Imperial University Herbarium to honor Yushun Kudo, a professor of Department of Agriculture and Science and the first director of Herbarium, who died in 1932. Written in Japanese, Kudoa was published from 1933 to 1937 in total five volumes, each containing four issues. Except occasional research papers on the other areas, Kudoa collected the research results of taxonomy and ecology studies mainly based on Taiwan, including regional flora and index of plant name. In most issues, there were additional sections of "excerptions" and "miscellaneous reports"; the former is a number of Japanese abstracts of selected papers from journals of various contents in many countries; the latter includes a variety of topics of conversation, editorial notes, and committee reports.

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北樺太植物調查書(工藤祐舜)
Northern Karafuto (by Yushun Kudo)

北樺太植物調查書(工藤祐舜)

北樺太是指現在之庫頁島北部,1920-1925年間為日軍所佔據。當時日軍薩哈嗹軍政部基於當地資源之未明,即委託工藤祐舜助教授進行植物之調查。工藤祐舜以32歲之齡於1922年七月登陸該地,進行一個多月之調查採集。同年八月及次年 8-9月再度赴該島兩次,總計完成一千五百處地點之探查。1924年將兩年之調查成果匯集成「北樺太植物調查書」,內容包括植物學名、分佈狀況、種類之鑑定、各種用途(用材、食用、藥用、有毒、工業用、綠肥、觀賞等)、參考文獻等。1928年工藤祐舜轉任臺北帝國大學理農學部植物分類學講座,兼附屬植物園長。他在北樺太、北海道等地所收集的標本亦多數隨之轉移至臺北帝國大學植物標本館,保存至今,是極為珍貴之收藏品,也是當前研究該地區植物所必須檢視之資料。

Flora of Northern Karafuto (by Yushun Kudo)

Northern Karafuto is now the northern part of Sakhalin, occupied by Japan in 1920-1925. Yushun Kudo, at age of 32, led a plant research project under the commission of Japanese Sakhalin military administration to investigate the resources of Northern Karafuto. Yushun Kudo arrived in Northern Karafuto to carry out the plant collection and investigation more than a month in July, 1922. Yushun Kudo visited the area two more times in August, 1922, and in August-September, 1923, to complete the investigation of 1500 sites. In 1924, he published Flora of Northern Karafuto to present the two-year research results, including scientific names, distribution, taxa of identification, a variety of uses (timber, edible, medicinal, toxic, industrial, green manure, and ornamental uses ), and references. Yushun Kudo invited Taihoku Imperial University as both plant taxonomy professor of Agriculture and Science Department, and the director of Herbarium in 1928. The majority of his specimen collections of Northern Karafuto, Hokkaido and other places were also transferred to the Taihoku Imperial University Herbarium and turned into the extremely precious collections as well as essential research materials for the plant studies in the areas at present day.

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模式標本
Type specimen

模式標本

當採集到一份標本,經核對文獻後發現是新種時,需在刊物上公開發表,詳細描述該份標本的形態特徵,通常還需附上插圖,並指明標本存放的標本館,。該份標本即成為物種發表新名稱時的依據,稱為模式標本,隨著物種的名稱而永遠存在。臺灣於日治時期開始大規模從事植物資源之探勘工作,當時計發現1,300多種新物種,其模式標本多保存於東京帝國大學及隸屬於臺灣總督府的中央林業部標本館。1928年臺北帝國大學創設後,臺灣植物資源調查研究重心轉移至植物分類生態學教室執行。此期除臺灣地區的調查外,植物資源探勘研究也曾遠征爪哇、蘇門答臘、婆羅洲、海南島、南太平洋之密克羅尼西亞群島等地。這些地區的調查加上1946年之後國內本地之調查,共累積了1,000餘份的模式標本,其中有673份採自臺灣、206份產於密克羅尼西亞群島、54份來自中國大陸的四川、廣東、廣西、浙江、海南島等地、7份來自日本本島、30份產於琉球群島、其餘採自越南、非洲等地。這批珍貴模式標本的妥善留存及數位化,將可提供國內外人士物種比對之依據。

Type specimen

The original specimen from which the description of a new species is made is known as type specimen, which should be preserved forever. When a new species is identified, after checking the collected specimen with referential literature, a detailed description of the morphological characteristics of the species usually needs to be published, accompanying by illustrations and indicating Herbarium where the specimens is stored. The large-scale exploration of plant resources of Taiwan started from Japanese colonial period so that more than 1,300 new species were discovered. Most type specimens were sent to Tokyo Imperial University or to the herbarium in the Central Forest Department of Taiwan Governor General Office. The epic center of Taiwan plant resource exploration shifted to the Department of Plant Taxonomy and Ecology in Taihoku Imperial University, after it was founded in 1928. The exploration of plant resources in Japanese colonial period also expanded to Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Hainan Island, and Micronesia islands the South Pacific. Including the specimens from those areas and specimens collected in mainland China after 1946, there are more than 1,000 specimens of type species in total, of which 673 were collected in Taiwan, 206 in Micronesia Islands, 54 in mainland China (such as Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Zhejiang, and Hainan), 7 in Japan, 30 in Okinawa, and the rest were collected in Vietnam, Africa and other places. The preservation and digitalization of these valuable biological specimens of type species will provide reference and index for species identification and benefit the researchers in plant taxonomy.

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神奈川縣立生命之星-
地球博物館的台灣蘭科標本
Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History

神奈川縣立生命之星-地球博物館的台灣蘭科標本

位於日本神奈川縣小田原市的神奈川縣立生命之星-地球博物館有部分植物標本是早年在台北帝國大學任教的正宗嚴敬教授於二次大戰後攜帶回日本。這批標本全為蘭科植物,包括珍貴的蘭花模式標本達78種之多。有關模式標本的相關資料(文獻出處、發表年代及採集資訊)已由井上健、勝山輝男、高橋秀男及秋山守在植物研究雜誌發表( Inoue et al., 1998 ),也因該篇文章之發表,使得這一批遺失達七十餘年的模式標本得以公諸於世。經赴日實地訪察,除模式標本外,尚有大量之台灣蘭科標本(估計有一千份以上),由福山伯明、正宗嚴敬、瀨川幸吉、鈴木時夫、佐佐木舜一等人於採自台灣各地,是台灣早年最重要之標本。自2007年起在國科會「國際數位內容整合與合作計畫」之資助之下,以及「神奈川縣立生命之星-地球博物館」勝山輝男先生之協助之下,以兩年之時間已完成所有蘭科標本之拍攝工作,將陸續整理上網,如此可補齊台灣蘭科植物數位典藏缺漏的部分,提供國內外分類研究比對之用,使得台灣生物資料庫更臻完整。

Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History

After World War II, Professor Genkei Masamune of Taihoku Imperial University returned to Japan. The Orchidaceae specimens he took back became a part of the botanical collection in Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History, located in Odawara City, Kanagawa Prefecture. This collection includes 78 precious Orchidaceae type specimens. The associated information (referential literature, released date and collecting information) have been published by Ken Inoue, Teruo Katsuyama, Hideo Takahashi and Mamoru Akiyama in Journal of Japanese Botany (Inoue et al., 1998). Due to the publishing of the article, the type specimens are revealed again after missing more than 70 years. After field trips to Japan, we have found that there are more than 1,000 Orchidacea specimens, collected around Taiwan by Noriaki Fukuyama, Kokichi Segawa, Tokio Suzuki, Syuniti Sasaki, and Genkei Masamune, still left in Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. These specimens, along with the type specimens mentioned above, are Taiwan’s most valuable assets in the earliest time. The images of all Orchidaceae specimens have been taken in the two years since 2007 under the funding from the National Science Council’s “International Collaboration and Promotion of Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Project” and the assistance from Mr. Teruo Katsuyama of Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. The digital collection will be available on-line for cross-examination research in plant taxonomy in order to fill the information gap of digital collection on Taiwan’s Orchidaceae and make the national biological database more complete.

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