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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 5

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  5: 655

    27. PALMAE (AREACACEAE) q
    LIAO, Jih-Ching
    Hermaphroditic, polygamous, monoecious or dioecious, trees, shrubs or vines. Stems solitary, clustered
    or acaulescent, armed or not, woody, slender to massive, unbranched, rarely branched, sometimes
    ventricose or swollen at base; leaf scars conspicuous or not, stilt roots present or absent; roots adventitious,
    sometimes modified into spines. Leaves alternate, rarely distichous or tristichous, persistent or
    marcescent; sheath tubular at base, later frequently splitting, armed or not with spines or prickles, glabrous,
    scaly or hairy; hastula (ligule) in front of petiole. Petiole usually terete, channeled, ridged above,
    with spines or teeth, glabrous, scaly or hairy; leaf blade palmate, costapalmate, pinnate, bipinnate or
    entire and pinnately veined, plicate in bud induplicate, reduplicate or not; segments or leaflets linear,
    lanceolate or rhomboid or wedge shaped, single- or many-folded, armed with spines or bristles along
    margins and/or main veins, rachis prolonged distally in many climbing palms. Inflorescences solitary or
    multiple, in some species of Calamus inflorescences modified as climbing whip (flagellum), prophyll
    usually 2-keeled, 0-many, rachis shorter or longer than peduncle, rachilla bracts conspicuous, minute or
    lacking. Flowers in pits, sessile or stalked. Sepals (2-)3 (rarely more), distinct or connate, imbricate,
    basally connate, rarely valvate or widely separate; petals (2-)3 (rarely more), distinct or connate, valvate
    or imbricate; stamens (3-)6-950 or more; filaments erect or inflexed in bud, free, connate or adnate to
    petals; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, introrse, or by pores, pollen globose or ellipsoid; staminodes
    rarely absent; gynoecium apocarpous, opening or syncarpous, (1-)3-10; styles distinct or connate; stigmas
    erect or recurved, rarely indistinct; ovule solitary in each cell, anatropous, hemianatropous, campylotropous
    or orthotropous, basally, laterally or apically attached, integuments 2. Fruit 1-(2-10) seeded;
    epicarp smooth or hairy, prickly, corky-warty or with imbricate scales; mesocarp fleshy, fibrous or dry;
    endocarp thin or thick, often with 3 or more pores; seed adhering to pericarp or free; endosperm homogeneous
    or ruminate; embryo apical lateral or basal.
    About 2,800 species in 210 genera in tropical, subtropical to warm temperate regions. Five genera
    and seven species in Taiwan.
    LITERATURE
    Alec, B. & T. Rodd, 1988. An informative, practical guide to palms of the world (their cultivation, care
    & landscape use), p1-210. London United Kingdom.
    Balick, M. J. 1990. Useful palms of the world (A Synoptic bibliography): Columbia Univ. Press New
    York. U.S.A.
    Byrd, G. A. 1985. Exotica series 4 (ed. 12th) 2: 1849-1916. Roehrs Company U.S.A.
    Byrd, G. A. 1986. Tropica ed. 3. p764-807. Roehrs Company, U.S.A.
    Chang, C.-E., 1988. The genus of Calmus L. in Taiwan. Quart. J. of Chin. Forest. 21(1):107.
    Pei, S., S. Chen, & S. Tong, in Pei S. & S. Chen (eds.) Flora Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13(1):1-172. 1991.
    Uhl, N. W. & J. Dransfield, 1987. Genera Palmarum, p1-610. The L. H. Bailey Hortorium & the International
    Palm Society, U.S.A.
    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Leaves simple, palmate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. Livistona
    1. Leaves pinnately compound.
    2. Climbing vines; petiole, sheaths and leaves with long spines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Calamus
    2. Trees; petiole, sheaths and leaves without spines.
    3. Trunks clustered; leaflets often auricled at the base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Arenga
    3. Trunks solitary; leaflets not auricaled.
    4. Leaflets regularly in 2 rows, without spines; stamens 36-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Pinanga