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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 979

     105. CORNACEAE 山茱萸科
    LI, HUI-LIN and YANG, KUOH-CHENG

    Trees, shrubs or suffrutescent subshrubs. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, simple, usually deciduous, petioled, estipulate. Flowers small, bisexual or unisexual, actinomorphic, in cymes or panicles or head, sometimes with showy foliaceous bracts. Sepals 4-5, distinct, valvate. Petals 4(-5) distinct mostly valate. Stamens of same number as petals and alternate with them, distinct; anthers 2-celled, basifixed or dorsifixed. Ovary inferior, 2-4- or rarely 1-celled; placentation usually axile; ovule 1 in each cell, pendulous, anatropous; style 1 or several, arising from an epigynous ring or disc, the stigmas as many as styles and subcapitate. Fruit a drupe, sometimes a berry or rarely a syncarp. Seeds with small embryo in copious endosperm.
    About 13 genera, widely distributed in the tropical and temperate regions of the world; four in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Leaves usually opposite; flowers in terminal or axillary clusters.
    2. Leaves serrate; ovary 1-celled; fruit a berry… 1. Aucuba
    2. Leaves entire; ovary generally 2-celled; fruit a drupe.
    3. Inflorescence corymbose cyme, without showy foliaceous bract… 4. Swida
    3. Inflorescence capitate, involucrate with 4 large petaloid bracts… 2. Benthamidia
    1. Leaves altemate; flowers in sessile umbels on the midrib of the abaxial surface of the leaf or phyllode… 3. Helwingia

    1. AUCUBA Thunb. 桃葉珊瑚屬

    Glabrous branching shrubs, evergreen. Leaves opposite, petioled, ovate or lanceolate, obtusely serrate, leathery, shining, turning black in drying. Flowers small, dioecious, pseudo-axillary panicles; pedicels jointed and bracteolate. Staminate flowers: calyx small, 4-toothed; petals ovate or lanceolate, valvate; stamens 4; disc quadrangular, fleshy; no rudiment of an ovary. Pistillate flowers: calyx ovoid, the limb 4-toothed; petals as in the staminate; no rudiments of stamens; ovary 1celled; disc fleshy; style short, thick, the stigma capitate; ovule solitary, pendulous. Berry ellipsoid, crowned with the calyx teeth and style; seed oblong; endosperm copious, embryo minute.
    Species over ten, natives of the Himalayas and eastern Asia; two or three in Taiwan.

    KEY TO SPECIES
    1. Leaf elliptic, length/width ratio under 3; male inflorescence more than 3 cm long; pedicels (primary, secondary) over one more than 1 cm long… 2.A. japonica
    1. Leaf oblong or oblong-lanceolate, length/width ratio over 3.5; male inflorescence less than 2 cm long; pedicels (primary, secondary) all less than 1 cm long… 1. A. chinensis

    1. Aucuba chinensis Benth., Fl. Hongk. 138. 1861; Li in Fl. Taiwan 3: 908. 1977. 桃葉珊瑚 Pl.488
    Shrub. Leaves oblong or oblnbg-lanceolate, 10-12 cm long, 2-2.5 cm broad, remotely dentate or serrate, glabrous on both surfaces; inflorescence short panicle, less than 2 cm long. Flowers 4-merous. Fruit ellipsoid, with stalk less than 1 cm long.
    China. Taiwan, in forests at low altitudes, major in central and southern part of the island.