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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 975

     103. THELIGONACEAE 纖花草科
    HUANG, TSENG-CHIENG

    An annual herbs. Leaves deltoid to ovate, entire, somewhat succulent, the lower ones opposite, the upper ones alternate; stipules opposite, membranaceous, uniting at the base of petioles. Flowers unisexual, monoecious, axillary, in small sessile cymes opposite the upper leaves. Staminate and pistillate flowers 2-3 together at nodes; calyx 3-lobed; stamens 3-30; anthers linear on free slender filaments, opening lengthwise. Pistillate flowers short-pedicellate, with a very oblique 3-lobulate calyx; ovary of one carpel; style simple; ovule solitary, basal, with single integument. Fruit a subglobose nut included in the thin membranaceous calyx. Seed sessile, with fleshy endosperm.
    A single genus, with few species, in the Atlantic Islands, Mediterranean region and eastern Asia.

    THELIGONUM L. 纖花草屬

    Characters of the family; one species in Taiwan.

    LITERATURE

    Huang, T. C., S. F. Huang & K. C. Yang 1989. Notes on the Flora of Taiwan (3)- The misscellancous plants in Taiwan. Taiwania 34: 47.

    1. Theligonum formosanum (Ohwi) Ohwi & Liu in Fl. Taiwan 3: 904. 1977. 台灣纖花草 Pl.486, Photo 82
    Cynocrambe formosana Ohwi in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 2(3): 157. 1933.
    A low perennial herb, becoming black when dry. Stems branched at base, creeping below, ascending above, up to 15 cm high, somewhat hairy. Leaves petiolate, the upper alternate, the lower opposite; blade up to 10 mm long, deltoid to ovate, acute, subtruncate or obtuse at base, entire, 12-23 mm long, 10-16 mm wide, pilose above, along veins beneath. Stipules opposite, adnate to petioles, membranaceous, reflexed ovate-deltoid, acuminate, slightly fimbricate-ciliate at margin. Flowers white monoecious, axillary, sessile, both staminate and pistillate arranged at the same nodes; perianth of staminate flowers deeply 3-lobed, the segments oblanceolate, reflexed and obtuse at apex, 1-nerved, 3 mm long; stamens 3-8; anthers linear, opening longitudinally, the filaments slender, pistillate flowers smaller, the perianth 3-lobed, the lobes small, obtuse; styles recurved; ovule solitary, basal. Fruit a subglobase nut, included in the thin membranous calyx: seeds solitary, hairy, with fleshy endosperm.
    Endemic. It grows on the west forest among mountain trail, usually near running water at about 2,700 m in elevation.
    PINGTUNG: Tawushan, Ohwi 1849 (Holotype, KYO!), Huang et al. 13679*.
    This species differs from T. japonicum mainly by the number of stamens and the shape of pistillate flowers. This species is known from one locallity and has been collected twice only.