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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 937

     101. ONAGRACEAE 柳葉菜科
    RAVEN, PETER H. and PENG, CHING-I

    Circaea by BOUFFORD, DAVID E.
    Epilobium by LIEVENS, ALAN W. and HOCH, PETER C.
    Ludwigia by RAVEN, PETER H. and PENG, CHING-I
    Oenothera by HOCH, PETER C. and WAGNER, WARREN L.

    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, sometimes woody. Leaves basal or cauline, alternate or opposite, simple, entire or toothed (rarely lobed); stipules minute or absent. Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, in leaf axils or in inflorescences, generally bisexual (all in Taiwan), 2-7-merous; floral tube present or absent; stamens as many as or twice as many as the sepals; anthers versatile; pollen shed singly or in tetrads, connected by viscin threads; ovary inferior; style single; stigma 4-lobed, clavate or globose. Fruit a capsule, berry, or nut, loculicidal or indehiscent. Seeds anatropous, lacking endosperm, smooth or with tubercles or scales, some with a coma or wings.
    Fifteen genera and about 650 species, worldwide but with most genera present in western North America. All four genera that occur as native plants in the Old World have representatives in Taiwan, and a total of 22 species (plus one hybrid) of Onagraceae occur in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Sepals 2; fruit bristly with hooked hairs, indehiscent… 1. Circaea
    1. Sepals 4 or 5; fruit not bristly with hooked hairs, dehiscent in most species.
    2. Floral tube present; sepals deciduous as unit with perianth.
    3. Flowers opening near sunset; capsules 5.5-17 mm thick, conspicuously ribbed; seeds without a coma… 4. Oenothera
    3. Flowers opening in the morning; capsules 1-2.5 mm thick, not conspicuously ribbed; seeds with a coma… 2. Epilobium
    2. Floral tube absent; sepals persistent… 3. Ludwigia

    1. CIRCAEA L. 露珠草屬
    BOUFFORD, DAVID E.

    Perennial rhizomatous herbs, often forming large colonies. Leaves petiolate, opposite, becoming alternate and bract-like in inflorescence. Inflorescence terminal on main stem and at tips of short axillary branches, a simple or branched raceme. Flowers white or pink, 2-merous, with a floral tube; ovary uni- or bilocular; ovules 1 per locule; sepals and petals alternate, stamens opposite sepals; petals notched at apex; nectary surrounding base of style, wholly within floral tube or elongated and projecting as a fleshy, cylindrical or ring-like disc; style equalling or longer than stamens, stigma 2-lobed. Fruit an indehiscent capsule, covered with stiff uncinate hairs; with or without conspicuous rows of corky tissue. Seeds smooth, fusiform or broadly clavoid to slenderly ovoid, adhering firmly to inner ovary wall. N=11.
    A genus of 7 species and an additional 7 subspecies in temperate and boreal forests of the northern hemisphere from near sea level to 5,000 m, and from 10 to 70 N. Lat; 4 species are in Taiwan. Interspecific hybrids are common and often abundant in naturally disturbed habitats in North America, Europe and Japan, but are unknown from Taiwan.