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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 929

     99. RHIZOPHORACEAE 紅樹科
    LI, HUI-LIN and LO, HANN-CHUNG

    Trees or erect shrubs, often with salt or aerial roots, usually inermous, without milky latex. The vegetative and floral parts are glabrous (if not otherwise mentioned). Stem-nodes swollen. Leaves opposite or distichous, petioled, simple, entire or shallowly serrate, coriaceous, glabrous; stipules mostly present, small or large, interpetiolar, early caducous, leaving an annular scar. Flowers in cymes or solitary, in axiles of whether or not fallen leaves, regular, bisexual, rarely unisexual or polygamous; calyx-tube more or less adnate to ovary, lobes 4-15, valvate in bud, persistent; petals as many as calyx-lobes, delicate, caducous; stamens mostly twice the number of petals, surrounding the disk; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, either many-celled and 1-valvate, or with 2 longitudinally dehiscent cells; ovary from superior to nearly entirely inferior, 1-8-celled; ovules 1-6 in each cell, born at apex or in inner angle of ovary-cell; style 1. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent. Seeds 1-7, whether or not germinating on the plant (vivipary), often endospermous.
    Genera about 17, several of them comprising the characteristic mangrove vegetation mainly throughout the paleotropic regions of the world. Previously there were 4 genera in Taiwan, but now Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lam. And Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Robinson can not be found any more in Kaohsiung.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Calyx-lobes 5-6; petals multifid; stamens many… 1. Kandelia
    1. Calyx-lobes 4; petals entire; stamens 8… 2. Rhizophora

    1. KANDELIA Wight & Arnott 水筆仔屬

    Evergreen small tree; branches terete. Leaves entire. Flowers in cymes 4-10, white; calyx subtended by a cuplike involucre of bracteoles, 5-6-lobed; petals 5-6, bifid, each lobe filiform-laciniate; stamens many, on a disk; anthers 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent; filaments capillary; ovary inferior, conical at apex, 1-celled; ovules 6-10, in pairs on a central axis; style filiform; stigma 3-lobed. Fruit with persistent calyx attached to the plant after falling of vivipary seedling. Seed 1, germinating on plant; hypocotyl long, clavate.
    Monotypic, locally distributed in Southeastern to eastern Asia.

    1. Kandelia candel (L.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 3: 420. 1914; Li in Fl. Taiwan 3: 872. f. 848. 1977. 水筆仔 Pl.464, Photo 77
    Rhizophora candel L., Sp. Pl. 443. 1753.
    Small tree, 3-7 m; bark greyish to brown, smooth. Leaves thick, oblong to obovate-oblong, rounded and with a mucro at apex, acute at base, 3-13 cm by 1.3-4.5 cm long; petiole 2-3 mm long; calyx-lobe linear-oblong, reflexed, 1.2-1.6 cm long; petals narrow, 0.9-1.2 cm long. Fruit pyramidal, 1.5-2 cm long; hypocotyl 15-20 cm long.
    TAIPEI: Chen 7623*, Sasaki s. n. 1929; Keelung, Faurie 67, 68. HSINCHU: Ito s. n. 1924.