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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 855

     94. CUCURBITACEAE 葫蘆科
    LIU, HO-YIH

    Annual or perennial herbaceous or rarely softly woody, mostly climbing or prostrate, juicy plants with spirally coiled tendrils. Leaves alternate, petiolate; tendrils lateral, rarely absent; stipules absent. Flowers unisexual, or very rarely bisexual, usually actinomorphic, epigynous or rarely semi-epigynous; calyx and petals usually 5-lobed, often sympetalous; stamens 1-5, alternate with the petals, free or variouly connate, anther loculi extrose; ovary 3- carpelled, mostly 3-locular, placentas parietal, styles 1 or less often 3, if 1 then the stigma usually 3. Fruit a pepo or berry, or less often a dry or fleshy capsule opening in various fashions. Seeds often compressed, sometimes winged; endosperm absent. Type genus Cucurbita L.
    A family of about 120 genera and 800 species, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with relatively few species occurring in temperate and cool climates; 13 genera and 21 species were found wild in Taiwan. However, Sicyos angulatus L., is not treated here because it is an American species found only once, and has not found since. In addition, there are many cultivated taxa were occassionally grow wild: Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. var. chieh-qua How, Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. var. hispida, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo L. subsp. Agrestis (Naud.) Pangalo, Cucumis melo L. subsp. Melo, Cucumis sativus L., Cucurbita ficifolia Bouche, Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth, Cucurbita maxima Duch. ex Lam., Cucurbita mixta Pangalo, Cucurbita moschata (Duch. ex Lam.) Duch. ex Poir., Cucurbita pepo L., Cyclanthera pedata (L.) Schrader, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. depressa (Ser.) Hara, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. hispida (Thunb.) Hara, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. microcarpa (Naud.) Hara, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. siceraria, Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. J. Roem., Momordica charantia L., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz, Trichosanthes anguina L.

    LITERATURE

    Hsiao, J.-Y. 1977. Cucurbitaceae. Flora of Taiwan 3: 799-815.
    Jeffrey, C. 1980. The Cucurbitaceae of Eastern Asia. 60 pp. Kew.
    Lu, A.-M. et al. 1986. Cucurbitaceae. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. 73(1):84-280.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Leaves pedately 3-5-7-foliolate, rarely simple.
    2. Leaflets entire; leaves 5-foliolate; fruit a cylindrical capsule, truncate at apex… 7. Neoalsomitra
    2. Leaflets toothed; leaves 3-7-foliolate, rarely simple; fruit a globose berry with a transverse line… 4. Gynostemma
    1. Leaves simple, often lobed.
    3. Corolla lobes long fimbriate at margin… 11. Trichosanthes
    3. Corolla lobes not fimbriate at margin.
    4. Stamens 5.
    5. Stamens not pairing; petals without ventral scales; fruit a circumsissle capsule… 1. Actinostemma
    5. Stamens 4 in 2 pairs, one separate; petals with ventral scales; fruit a berry.
    6. Tendrils bifid, coiled above and below the forked point… 8. Siraitia
    6. Tendrils simple or bifid; if bifid, only coiled above the forked point… 10. Thladiantha
    4. Stamens 3.
    7. All stamens 2-locular… 12. Zehneria
    7. Two stamens 2-locular, one 1-locular.
    8. Anther loculi straight or curved.
    9. Anther loculi oblique, curved; staminate flowers subumbellate; fruits with spotted-stripes… 9. Solena
    9. Anther loculi straight; staminate flowers fasciculate; fruit without stripes… 6. Mukia
    8. Anther loculi triplicate.