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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 837

     91A. PASSIFLORACEAE 西番蓮科
    KAO, MUH-TSUEN

    Shrubs, herbs, or vines, often climbing by means of undivided tendrils borne in the leaf-axil. Leaves spirally arranged, occasionally opposite, simple, often lobed or palmatifid. Flowers axillary, actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual, mostly bracteate, solitary or in racemes or corymbs, the position of the tendrils corresponding with that of the terminal flower or lower ones; perianth 2-seriate, inserted on the upper margin of mostly concave to cup-shaped hypanthium; corona very variable, often brightly coloured, consisting of l-several rows of filament-like rays that arising from the mouth of corolla, and some accessory structures; sepals 3-5, rarely none; stamens 5, alternate with the petals, inserted on hypanthium or on gynophore, the filaments free or monadelphous; ovary superior on a gynophore, l-locular, with 3 parietal placentae, ovules numerous; stigmas 3-5, capitate, Fruit a berry or a loculicidally 3-5-valved capsule; seeds surrounded by a pulpy aril.
    Eleven genera and with nearly 600 species, chiefly in tropical and warm-temperate America, Asia, Australia and Madagascar. Two genera, four species and one variety in Taiwan.

    LITERATURE

    C. A. Backer, F1. Java 1: 288. 1963.
    E. H. Walker, F1. Okinawa, Southern Ryukyu Is. 746. 1976.

    KET TO GENERA
    1. Flowers unisesual; stamens seated on hypanthium; gynopore absent or very short; anthers basifixed; fruit capsular… 1. Adenia
    1. Flowers bisexual; stamens adnate to gynophore; gynophore distinct, elongate; anthers dorsifixed; fruit baccate… 2. Passiflora

    1. ADENIA Forsk. 假西番蓮屬

    Mostly tendrillate climbers, glabrous. Leaves entire or palmatifid, with 2 glands at base; stipules absent or minute. Flowers unisexual, racemose or cymose; hypanthium cup-shaped to tubular, or almost wanting, in pistillate flower mostly shorter; sepals 4-5, much shorter than tubes; petals 4-5, smaller and thinner than sepals, recurved; corona ill-developed, consisting of l scale on backside of each stamen, or absent; staminate flowers: the short filaments seated at base of hypan-thium; anthers basifixed, rudiment of pistil short; pistillate flowers: the stami-nodes on base of hypanthium, small, subulate; gynophore wanting or very short; style short or absent; stigma 3-5 partite. Fruit a loculicidally 3-5-valved capsule, red; seeds with long funicles; aril white.
    About 100 species in tropical and subtropical Africa to Malaysia. One species in Taiwan.

    1. Adenia formosana Hayata, Icon. Pl. Form. 4: 8. f. 1, 2. 1914; 5: 73. 1915; Suzuki in Masamune, Short F1. Form. 144. 1935; Kao in Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. ROC 3(4): 437. 1979. 假西番蓮 Pl.424
    Modecca formosana Hayata, Icon. Pl. Form. 4: 8. 1914.
    A twinging herb, rather stout. Leaves alternate, 3-or rarely 5-palmatifid, up to 11 cm long, with a pair of glands at base; petioles 2 cm long; tendrils axillary, about 10 cm long. Racemes axillary, with 1-2 flowers; peduncles 3-6 cm long; flowers unisexual. Staminate flowers: sepals 5, segments triangular, 2.5