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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 805

     90. VIOLACEAE 堇菜科
    WANG, JENN-CHE and HUANG, TSENG-CHIENG

    Herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple; stipules leafy or small. Flowers in Taiwan solitary in the leaf axils, bisexual, zygomorphic, sometimes cleistogamous; sepals 5, persistent; petals 5, unequal, the anterior one often spurred; stamens 5, hypogynous, closely connivent in a ring around the ovary, the anthers 2-celled, introrse, the top produced a membranaceous appendage convering with others, the lower two often spurred, longitudinally dehiscent; pistil 1, ovary superior, unilocular with generally 3 carpels, parietal; ovules many, antropous. Fruit a 3-valved capsule. Seeds many, sessile; endosperm fleshy; embryo straight.
    About 17 genera and 900 species, cosmopolitan. Two genera in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Plants somewhat woody at base; leaves sessile or subsessile; pedicels articulate; sepals without basal appendages; seeds ribbed lengthwise… 1. Hybanthus
    1. Plants herbaceous; leaves petiolate; pedicels not articulate; sepals with basal appendage; seeds smooth… 2. Viola

    1. HYBANTHUS Jacq. 鼠鞭草屬

    Small gnarly shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, more or less sessile; blade narrowly elliptic to almost needle-shaped, margin entire to incised; stipules in pairs, small. Flowers axillary, bisexual, zygomorphic, solitary, with a pair of bracteoles at the joint of peduncle and pedicel; sepals 5, more or less triangular, nearly equal, entire, without appendages at base, persistent; petals 5, unequal, the posterior ones small and straight, the anterior one extended to a lip, with a short spur at base; stamens 5, connivent around the gynoecium; filaments free, short; anther 2-celled, with a distinct membraneous connective appendage, the lower two with a patent gland at the base; ovary unilocular, ovules numerous, on 3-parietal placentas; style simple, geniculate at base, conspicuously clavate, with an anterior openning of stigmatic cavity. Fruit a 3-valved capsule, subglobose, valves leathery. Seeds numerous, ellipsoid, with longitudinal ribs.
    About 150 species, chiefly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world; one species in Taiwan.

    LITERATURE

    Peng, C. I. & Y. F. Chen. 1986. Hybanthus Jacq. (Violaceae), a new generic record for the flora of Taiwan. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 26: 213-220.

    1. Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. v. Muell., Fragm. Phyt. Austr. 10: 81. 1876; Peng & Chen in Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 26: 214. f. 1. 1986. 鼠鞭草 Pl.405
    Viola enneasperma L., Sp. Pl. 2: 937. 1753.
    Small herbs, often woody at the base, 10-20 cm tall, subglabrous. Leaves alternate, more or less sessile; blade narrowly lanceolate-elliptic, 1-3 cm long, 2-5 mm wide, the base decurrent into petiole, the apex acute with a mucro, margins subentire or very remotely crenulate; stipules in pairs, hyaline, persistent, triangular to subulate, 1-2 mm long, the tip glandular. Flowers solitary, axillary, zygomorphic, with a pair of bracteoles at the joint of peduncle and pedicel; peduncle 4-20 mm long, 0.7-1 mm wide, apex acuminate, margins entire, without appendage at base, persistent; petals 5, unequal, the posterior pair oblong-