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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 794

     89. FLACOURTIACEAE 大風子科
    LI, HUI-LIN and LO, HANN-CHUNG

    Trees or shrubs, rarely scandent, mostly inermous, without milky latex. Leaves spirally arranged or distichous, rarely opposite, simple, petioled; blade often with base asymmetric; stipules usually small, rarely large, or absent. Flowers terminal, axillary or on old wood, solitary or in clusters or racemes, subtended by bracts, actinomorphic, bi- or unisexual and dioecious; sepals 3-6, rarely more, free or connate, imbricate or valvate, mostly persistent; petals 3-8, rarely more, or absent, imbricate or valvate; receptacle might deepen in the center, mostly with appendages as disk lobes, fine threads, petal-scales or staminodes; disk present or not, entire, lobed or dissolved into glands; stamens 5 to numerous, hypogynous, mostly free, or monadelphous; anther cells 2, longitudinally dehiscent; ovary mostly superior, rarely semi-inferior or inferior, 1-celled (except Flacourtia) with 2-10 parietal placentas, sometimes incompletely 2-10 celled by deeply penetrating placentas, each with 2 to numerous ovules; styles 1-10, free or connate; stigma sessile. Fleshy or dry berry, drup or loculicidally dehiscent capsule. Seeds 1 to many, sometimes arillate; endosperm copious; embryo axile; cotyledons mostly broad, foliaceous.
    Mostly tropics, 84 genera, ca 1,300 species. 6 genera with 6 species in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Corolla present.
    2. Branchlets spiny; berry crowned by long persistent style… 5. Scolopia
    2. Branchlets not spiny; capsule seated within persistent calyx… 3. Homalium
    1. Corolla absent.
    3. Flowers bisexual, in axillary clusters… 1. Casearia
    3. Flowers unisexual, rarely polygamous, in racemes or panicles.
    4. Flowers in long terminal panicles… 4. Idesia
    4. Flowers in short axillary racemes.
    5. Branches often inermous; seeds without aril… 2. Flacourtia
    5. Branches not inermous; seeds with aril… 6. Xylosma

    1. CASEARIA Jacq. 嘉賜木屬

    Trees or erect shrubs; twigs often zig-zag. Leaves distichous, pinnately nerved, serrate-crenate, often pellucid-dotted or lineate; stipules mostly minute and early caducous. Flowers axillary, usually fascicled, bisexual; calyx deeply lobed; sepals 5, imbricate, obtuse; corolla absent; stamens 5-10, uniseriate, alternating with as many scale-like or subulate disk-lobes; anthers glabrous or pubescent; filaments often unequal, glabrous or pubescent; ovary superior, glabrous or pubescent; placentas 2-4, with few or numerous ovules; style 1, short; stigma large, punctate. Capsule fleshy or dry, angular, 2-3-valved. Seeds usually several, with fimbriate, fleshy to pulpy, red or orange-red aril.
    About 160 species throughout the tropics. One in Taiwan.

    1. Casearia membranacea Hance in Journ. Bot. 6: 113. 1868; Li in Fl. Taiwan 3: 760. pl. 804. 1977. 薄葉嘉賜木 Pl.399
    Casearia merrilli Hayata, Icon. Pl. Form. 3: 30. pl. 3. 1913.
    Small evergreen trees; branchlets flexuous. Leaves mostly membranaceous, alternate, distichous,