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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 714

     82. ELAEOCARPACEAE 杜英科
    CHANG, CHING-EN

    Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, coriaceous or chartaceous, estipulate. Flowers hermaphroditic, actinomorphic, in racemes, rarely panicles, usually axillary; sepals 4-5, valvate, distinct or connate; petals 4-5, distinct, often fimbriate, usually valvate; stamens many, distinct, arising from a disc, the anthers usually 2-celled, dehising by a slit lengthwise or a terminal pore; disc intrastaminal, sometimes developed into an androphore; ovary superior, 2-many-celled, the placentation axile; ovules 2 to many in each cell, pendulous, anatropous. Fruit a capsule or a drupe. Seeds with a straight embryo and copious endosperm.
    About seven genera and over 100 species, of wide distribution in the tropics and warm regions; two genera and six species in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Flowers in racemes; sepals 5, free; fruit drupaceous… 1. Elaeocarpus
    1. Flowers in cymes; calyx connate, deeply 4-fid; fruit capsular… 2. Sloanea

    1. ELAEOCARPUS L. 杜英屬

    Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple. Flowers hermaphroditic in axillary racemes; sepals 5, distinct; petals 5, usually fimbriate at the apex, rarely entire, springing from the inside of the torus, and more or less aggregated into groups, opposite the petals and alternating with the glands of the torus; anthers linear, opening by a slit lengthwise; ovary 2-5-celled, with 2-many ovules in each cell, the style columnar. Drupe with a single bony stone, 2-5, or by abortion, 1-celled; seeds pendulous, 1 in each cell; endosperm fleshy.
    About 90 species, tropical Old World; six species in Taiwan.

    KEY TO SPECIES AND VARIETY
    1. Petals fimbriate at the apex.
    2. Fruit subglobose, about 1.5 cm across; anther awned at the apex of outer valves… 4. E. sphaericus var. hayatae
    2. Fruit elliptic, about 6-10 mm across; anther-valves awnless.
    3. Ovary 3-celled… 5. E. sylvestris
    3. Ovary 2-celled… 1. E. argenteus
    1. Petals entire or 3-4-dented at the apex.
    4. Petals entire, sometimes 3-4-dented; anthers awnless… 2. E. japonicus
    4. Petals 3-4-dented; anthers awned at the apex of the outer valves… 3. E. multiflorus

    1. Elaeocarpus argenteus Merr. in Gov. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29: 26. 1905; Chang in F1. Taiwan 3: 684. 1977. 腺葉杜英 Pl.364
    Elaeocarpus japonicus auct. non Sieb. & Zucc.: Ito in Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. 5(32): 11. 1917; Chang in Quart. Journ. Taiwan Forest. 3(2): 22. 1967.
    Elaeocarpus sylvestris (Lour.) Poiret var. argenteus (Merr.) Y. C. Liu, Lign. Pl. Taiwan 75. 1972.
    A tree, glabrous throughout except the inflorescences. Branchlets terete, brown; leaves coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, 6.5-8 cm long, acuminate at the apex, obtuse or sometimes acute at the base, the margins crenate, the lateral veins about 5-6 on each side of the midrib, the midrib elevated on both surfaces, the axils mostly prominently glandular beneath; petioles 1.5-2 cm long, slightly swollen at each end.