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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 69

     55. ROSACEAE 薔薇科
    OHASHI, HIROYOSHI
    Rubus by HSIEH, CHANG-FU and OHASHI, HIROYOSHI

    Trees, shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or compound; stipules paired, rarely absent. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, cymose, corymbose, racemose or paniculate, rarely reduced to a single flower. Flowers usually bisexual and actinomorphic. Calyx free from or adnate to the ovary; tube (hypanthium) short or elongated; lobes mostly 5. Petals mostly 5, rarely absent, inserted below the margins of the disc, deciduous. Stamens mostly numerous, usually in a complete ring at the margin of or above the disc; filaments usually free; anthers small, didymous, rarely elongated, 2-locular, dehiscing lengthwise. Carpels 1 to many, free or connate, usually adnate to the calyx-tube; ovules often 2 (rarely 1 to many) in each carpel or ovary-loculus, superposed, anatropous; styles free or connate, basal, lateral or subterminal. Fruits superior to inferior, nude or enclosed by the persistent calyx-tube, drupaceous, pomaceous, follicular or of an indefinite number of achenes. Seeds erect or pendulous, exalbuminous; cotyledons mostly fleshy, plano-convex.
    About 120 genera with over 3,300 species, world-wide, especially abundant in the northern temperate regions; 24 genera with 94 species recognized in Taiwan.

    LITERATURE

    Iketani, H. & H. Ohashi 1991. Anatomical structure of fruits and evolution of the tribe Sorbeae in the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Journ. Jpn. Bot. 66: 319-351.
    Kalkman, C. 1973. The Malesian species of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae) Blumea 21: 413-442.
    Kalkman, C. 1988. The phylogeny of the Rosaceae. Bot. Journ. Linn. Soc. 98: 37-59.
    Liu, T. S. & H. J. Su 1977. Rosaceae. In Li, H. L. (ed.), Flora of Taiwan 3: 57-144.
    Ohashi, H. 1989. Rosaceae (Prunus by H.Ohba, Rosa & Rubus by Y. Momiyama). Satake, Y. et al. (eds.) : Wild Fl. Jap. Woody Pl. 1: 179-228. Heibonsha, Tokyo.
    Robertson, K. R., J. B. Phipps, J. R. Rohrer & P. G. Smith 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Systematic Botany 16: 376-394.
    Yu, T. T. (ed.) 1974. Rosaceae (1) Spiraeoideae-Maloideae. Fl. Reip. Pop. Sinicae 36: 1-443.
    Yu, T. T. (ed.) 1985. Rosaceae (2) Rosoideae. Fl. Reip. Pop. Sinicae 37: 1-516.
    Yu, T. T. (ed.) 1986. Rosaceae (3) Prunoideae. Fl. Reip. Pop. Sinicae 38: 1-133.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Fruits dehiscent, follicular.
    2. Stipules absent; carpels 5; flowers in raceme, cyme or panicle; seeds linear or oblong… 23. Spiraea
    2. Stipules present; carpel solitary; flowers in corymbose panicle; seeds subglobose… 24. Stephanandra
    1. Fruits usually indehiscent, composed of achenes, drupes or pomes.
    3. Carpels in fruit not enclosed by calyx-tube (hypanthium).
    4. Ovules 2 in cach carpel.
    5. Calyx or calyx-lobes deciduous.
    6. Styles terminal; branchlets without spines and septate pith… 14. Prunus
    6. Styles lateral, especially so in fruit; branchlets with spines and septate pith… 13. Prinsepia
    5. Calyx or calyx-lobes persistent.
    7. Perennial herbs; plants usually unarmed; receptacle flattened in fruit… 6. Filipendula
    7. Shrubs or rarely straggling herbs: plants armed; receptacle conical to globose, especially so in fruit…