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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 680

     79. RHAMNACEAE 鼠李科
    LIU, YEH-CHING, LU,FU-YUEN, OU, CHERN-HSIUNG and WANG, CHIOU-MEEI

    Shrubs or trees, erect or scandent; branches unarmed, spinose or aculeate. Leaves simple, alternate, rarely opposite, usually coriaceous, often 3-5-nerved; stipules small, deciduous or changed into prickles. Flowers hermaphroditic or polygamous, small, greenish, in lax or dense axillary cymes, which are solitary or disposed in spikes or panicles. Calyx 4-5-fid, the lobes triangular, erect or recurved, valvate. Petals 4-5, rarely 6 or 0, inserted on the throat of the calyx-tube, usually shorter than its lobes. Stamens 4-5, inserted with the petals and opposite to them, often enclosed within their folds; anthers versatile, 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally. Disc fleshy and filling the calyx-tube, or thin and lining it, entire or lobed, glabrous, rarely tomentose. Ovary sessile, free or immersed in the disc, wholly free from the calyx-tube or more or less adherent to it, 3 rarely 2- or 4-celled; style short, simple, or 2-4-cleft; ovules 1 in each cell, erect, anatropous. Fruit free or girt at the base or middle by the adhering calyx-tube, 3- or more, rarely 1-2-celled, dry capsular or fleshy drupaceous, sometimes winged. Seed with fleshy endosperm, rarely exalbuminous; embryo large, erect.
    Genera about 58, cosmopolitan; six in Taiwan.

    LITERATURE

    Liu, Y. C. et al. 1990. Taxonomic studies of Rhamnaceae in Taiwan, Bull. Exp. For. Dept. For., Natl. Chung Hsing Univ. 12 (1): 1-38.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Fruit fleshy, drupaceous, with 1-4 stones.
    2. Disc thin and lining the calyx-tube.
    3. Unarmed and often scandent; flowers fascicled, the fascicles often in axillary spikes or panicles, or at the end of the branchlets; ovary 2-celled… 1. Berchemia
    3. Unarmed or armed, erect shrubs; flowers fascicled, usually in leaf axils or in racemes; ovary generally 3-4-celled… 4. Rhamnus
    2. Disc fleshy, filling the calyx-tube.
    4. Unarmed; leaves alternate; flowers in short axillary cymes… 2. Colubrina
    4. Unarmed or spinous; leaves opposite or subopposite. Flowers in terminal panicles… 5. Sageretia
    1. Fruit dry, samaroid, often 1-seeded.
    5. Leaves 3-nerved; fruit depressed-subglobose, with a broad orbicular horizontal wing… 3. Paliurus
    5. Leaves pinnate-veined: fruit subglobose prolonged above into a linear or linear-oblong coriaceous wing… 6. Ventilago

    1. BERCHEMIA Necker 黃鱔藤屬

    Shrubs with armed, or umarmed often scandent branches. Leaves alternate, penninerved. Flowers bisexual or polygamous, fascicled, the fascicles disposed in axillary spikes or panicles, or in the axils of the leaves, or clustered at the ends of the branches; calyx 5-6-fid; petals 5, rarely 6, obovate or cucullate; disc lining the calyx-tube, the margins free; ovary sunk in the disc, but free from it, 2-celled, narrowed into the bifid style. Fruit a hard or fleshy drupe, girt at the base with the calyx-tube; stone crustaceous or woody, 2-celled, 2-seeded; seeds linear-oblong, the endosperm fleshy.
    Species about 31, paleotropical; five in Taiwan.