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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 621

     74. AQUIFOLIACEAE 冬青科
    LU, SHENG-YOU

    Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, simple, estipulate or with 2 minute stipules, usually coriaceous and evergreen. Flowers small, in axillary cymes, fascicles or umbellules, usually dioecious. Calyx 3-6-partite or lobed, the segments or lobes imbricate, persistent. Petals 4-5, rarely more, connate at the base or connate in the males and free in the females, deciduous, imbricate. Stamens 4-5, adhering to the base of the petals, sometimes free and hypogynous in the females, the filaments subulate; anthers shortly oblong, dorsifixed. Disc 0. Ovary 2-16-celled; style 0 or very short, rarely long; stigma capitate or discoid; ovules 1 or collateral, pendulous, the raphe dorsal, the micropyle superior, the funicle often cupular. Drupe with 2 or more 1-seeded free rarely connate stones. Seed with a membranaceous testa, fleshy endosperm and minute embryo.
    Genera five, temperate and tropical; one in Taiwan.

    1. ILEX L. 冬青屬

    Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, simple, estipulate. Flowers small, in axillary cymes, fascicles or umbellules, usually dioecious; calyx 4-5-lobed or parted; corolla rotate, the petals free or connate at the base; stamens 4-5, adhering to the base of the corolla in the male flowers, sometimes hypogynous in the females; ovary 2-12-celled; styles 0 or very short, the stigmas free or confluent on the top of the ovary. Drupe globose, very rarely ovoid, with 2-8 stones.
    Species about 150, of wide distribution; about 23 species in Taiwan.

    KEY TO SPECIES AND VARIETIES
    1. Deciduous; leaves membranaceous to chartaceous (Subgen. Prinos).
    2. Fruit red, the pyrenes smooth, with coriaceous endocarp; leaves 7-13 cm long, 3-5 cm broad… 14. I. micrococca
    2. Fruit red or black, the pyrenes rough, with stony endocarp; leaves 3-7 cm long, 1.5-3 cm broad.
    3. Leaves small, to 5 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, hirsute on the nerves above… 2. I. asprella
    3. Leaves large, to 6.5 cm long and 4 cm broad, entirely glabrous… 11. I. kusanoi
    1. Evergreen; leaves coriaceous (Subgen. Ilex).
    4. Pistillate inflorescences or flowers solitary, on the year's growth; staminate ones on the current or second year's growth.
    5. Both staminate and pistillate inflorescences cymose or umbellate, axillary, both on the current year's growth.
    6. Petioles 5-8 mm long.
    7. Fruit ovate, 5-7 mm across… 12a. I. lonicerifolia var. lonicerifolia
    7. Fruit ellipsoid, 8-10 mm across… 12b. I. lonicerifolia var. matsudai
    6. Petioles 15-30 mm long.
    8. Fruiting peduncle 1.5-2.5 cm long… 17. I. rarasanensis
    8. Fruiting peduncle 0.6-0.9 cm long.
    9. Leaves thick coriaceous, midrib elevated… 20. I. tugitakayamensis
    9. Leaves subcoriaceous, midrib impressed… 18. I. rotunda
    5. Staminate flowers fasciculate, on the second year's growth; pistillate flowers 1-3, cymose.
    10. Leaves punctate beneath.
    11. Leaves elliptic or oblanceolate, the apex acute… 4. I. crenata
    11. Leaves obovate or oblong, the apex rounded… 13. I. maximowicziana