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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 414

     61. EUPHORBIACEAE 大戟科
    HSIEH, CHANG-FU, CHAW, SHU-MIAW and WANG, JENN-CHE

    Chamaesyce by LIN, SHU-CHIEN, CHAW, SHU-MIAW & HSIEH, CHANG-FU; Euphorbia by LIN, SHU-CHIEN & HSIEH, CHANG-FU; Breynia, Flueggea, Glochidion, Margaritaria, Phyllanthus and Synostemon by DENG, MEI-JIH & WANG, JENN-CHE

    Herbs, shrubs, or trees, often with milky juice, sometimes fleshy and cactus-like. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or variously compound, mostly stipulate. Flowers monoecious or sometimes dioecious, mostly actinomorphic, variously disposed, with or without perianth, sometimes with a corolla; perianth valvate or imbricate; sepals and petals usually distinct; disc often present, annular or of separate glands. Staminate flowers variable, with stamens usually as many or twice as many as the petals or reduced to one, distinct or monadelphous; anthers mostly 2-celled. Pistillate flowers with or without staminodes, often pedicellate; ovary superior, consisting of 3 or sometimes 2, or more than 3, united, 1-celled or rarely 2-celled carpels; styles 3, distinct or basally connate, each often 2-lobed; stigmas 3 or 6; placentation axile; ovules one or less commonly 2, pendulous. Fruit usually a schizocarpous capsule splitting often elastically into three 1-seeded cocci that dehisce ventrally, sometimes a drupe; seeds often with a conspicuous caruncle; endosperm mostly copious, fleshy; embryo straight.
    A very large family containing about 300 genera and 8,000 species, mostly tropical and subtropical; 27 genera in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Inflorescence composed of perianth-like 4-5-lobed involucre bearing in its center one stalked female flower surrounded by many stalked male flowers; female flower naked, usually consisting of a 3-celled ovary; male flower naked, of only one stamen.
    2. Leaves opposite, oblique at base; stipules membranous or scale-like… 7. Chamaesyce
    2. Leaves alternate, not oblique at base; stipules gland-like or absent… 11. Euphorbia
    1. Inflorescence otherwise.
    3. Leaves palmately 3-foliolate… 4. Bischofia
    3. Leaves simple, whether or not deeply incised.
    4. Ovary cells 2-ovulate.
    5. Perianth-segments clearly differentiated into calyx and corolla; sepals of male flowes valvate… 6. Bridelia
    5. Perianth-segments either calycine or corolline, sepals of male flowers imbricate.
    6. Flowers in terminal or axillary spikes or racemes.
    7. Stamens 2-5; drupe rugose, usually compressed… 3. Antidesma
    7. Stamens 2; drupe smooth, ellipsoid… 17. Liodendron
    6. Flowers solitary or fascicled in axils of leaves
    8. Stigma very broad, fleshy, sometimes connate… 10. Drypetes
    8. Stigma narrow, mostly bifid or twice bifid.
    9. Pistillode present in staminate flowers; stamens (4) 5, free; ovary 3-celled; shrub… 13. Flueggea
    9. Pistillode absent or very minute in staminate flowers; stamens (2) 3-6 (7); ovary 3-celled or more; trees, shrubs or herbs.
    10. Discs of staminate flowers distinct; trees, shrubs or herbs.
    11. Discs of pistillate flowers absent; fleshy herbs… 27. Synostemon
    11. Discs of pistillate flowers present; not fleshy herbs.
    12. Flowers 4-merous; stamens 4 (5); discs of staminate flowers annular; trees,… 20. Margaritaria
    12. Flowers 5- or 6-merous; stamens (2)3-6 (7); discs of staminate flowers segmented; shrubs or herbs… 24. Phyllanthus