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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 410

     60. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 蒺藜科
    HUANG, TSENG-CHIENG

    Herbs or shrubs, with opposite, pinnately or bifoliolately compound, stipulate leaves and entire leaflets; stipules often spine-like. Flowers actinomorphic, or zygomorphic, 5-merous, with usually 10 distinct stamens in 2 whorls, and a single pistil of 2-6 united carpels; stamens often with scales on their inner sides; disc often present; ovary superior, the styles united into a short column; ovules usually 2 in each carpel. Fruit a capsule, berry, or drupe, sometimes forming a bur-like schizocarp.
    A family of 25 genera and about 160 species in the warm and dry regions. One genus in Taiwan.

    1. TRIBULUS L. 蒺藜屬

    Usually prostrate or divaricate and hairy herbs with a very long tap-root. Leaves abruptly pinnate, opposite, with one of each pair reduced, thus appearing alternate. Flowers solitary on pseudo-axillary peduncles, yellow, actinomorphic; sepals 5, deciduous or persistent, imbricate; petals 5, fugacious, imbricate; disc annular, 10 lobed; stamens 10, inserted on the base of the disc, the outer 5 longer, opposite the petals, the inner 5 shorter, with a small gland outside; ovary sessile, 5-10 locular; style short, the stigmas 5-10; ovules superposed. Fruit 5-angled, of 5-10 winged or spinous or tuberculate indehiscent cocci; seeds obliquely pendulous.
    About 15 species, in most warm regions; two in Taiwan.

    LITERATURE

    Chaw, S. M., S. C. Lin & B. S. Wang. 1993. Tribulus cistoides L. (Zygophyllaceae): a new record for the flora of Taiwan. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica 34(1): 31-36.

    KEY TO SPECIES
    1. Leaflets 15-22 mm long; petals 11-13 mm long; styles excluded by sericeous hairs… 1. T. cistoides
    1. Leaflets 4-12 mm long; petals 3-5 mm long; styles wholly included by sericeous hairs… 2. T. terrestris

    1. Tribulus cistoides L., Sp. Pl. 1: 387. 1753; Chaw, Lin & Wang in Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica 34 (1): 31. 1993. 大花蒺藜 Pl.214, Photo 23
    A coarsely hairly perrenial herb, with long prostrate to ascending stem, up to several meters long. Leaves opposite pinnately compound, stipulate, to 7 cm long; petioles 0.8 cm long; stipules 4; leaflets 4-8 pairs, obliquely oblong, to 22 mm long, 1 cm wide, acute or obtuse at apex, oblique at base, entire, subglabrous; petiolules subsessile. Flowers yellow; pedicels 1.8 cm long; sepals 3-4 mm long; petals 11-13 mm long; stamens 10 in two whorls; ovary 5 carpels with axile placentation; styles long, excluded by sericeous hairs. Schizocarp bur-like, with 2 long and 2 short spines, 7 mm long, 1.5 mm across.
    Pantropical naturalized herbs from the Madagascar. Taiwan on sandy areas ranging from Penghu, Pingtung to Taichung counties.
    TAINAN: Tainan City, Huang & Huang 13736*. KAOHSIUNG: Kichun, Huang 8425; Lingyuan, Huang & Huang 12984.