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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 35

     53. SAXIFRAGACEAE 虎耳草科
    KAO, MUH-TSUEN

    Herbs, shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate or opposite, usually without stipules; blade simple or compound. Inflorescences basically cymose, sometimes racemose to paniculate. Flowers bisexual or polygamo-dioecious, regular, hypogynous or perigynous; sepals or calyx-lobes 4-5, free or united, imbricate or valvate; petals 4-5, rarely 0, imbricate or valvate; stamens inserted with the petals, equalling or doubling their number; staminodes or glands sometimes present between the stamens and ovary; carpels 2-5, wholly or partly connate, rarely separate; styles as many as the carpels, distinct or connate nearly to the summit, the stigmas capitate or lateral and subcapitate, ovules numerous, erect or pendulous. Fruit a capsule or berry; seeds numerous, small, winged, albuminous; embryo small, the cotyledons flat.
    About 80 genera and 1,200 species, widely distributed, chiefly in the cold and temperate regions; 13 genera, 23 species and two varieties in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Fruit a berry… 10. Ribes
    1. Fruit a capsule.
    2. Carpels 2; stamens equal to or double the number of petals; herbs.
    3. Scapose herb with staminodes… 8. Parnassia
    3. Herbs not scapose and without staminodes.
    4. Ovary 2-locular with axile placenta.
    5. Erect herbs; leaves compound… 1. Astilbe
    5. Stoloniferous herbs; leaves simple… 11. Saxifraga
    4. Ovary 1-locular with parietal placenta.
    6. Sepals 4; flowers without petals; inflorescence in cymes… 3. Chrysosplenium
    6. Sepals 5; flowers with petals; inflorescence in racemes.
    7. Carpels unequal in size… 13. Tiarella
    7. Carpels nearly equal in size… 7. Mitella
    2. Carpels 2-5; shrubs, rarely herbaceous.
    8. Bearing neutral flowers; stamens numerous.
    9. Styles united; neutral flowers with only one sepal… 12. Schizophragma
    9. Styles free; neutral flowers with 2-4 sepals.
    10. Shrubs; leaves opposite… 5. Hydrangea
    10. Herbs; leaves alternate… 2. Cardiandra
    8. Without neutral flowers; stamens 5 or 10.
    11. Stamens 5; ovary 2-locular; leaves alternate… 6. Itea
    11. Stamens 10; ovary 5-locular; leaves opposite.
    12. Filament alate; styles 4-5… 4. Deutzia
    12. Filament filiform; styles united… 9. Pileostegia

    1. ASTILBE Hamilt. 落新婦屬

    Perennial, pubescent herbs. Leaves radical and cauline, alternate, ternately compound, rarely simple, the stipules scarious, the leaflets lanceolate to ovate-orbicular, toothed. Inflorescence a terminal panicle. Flowers small, very numerous, white or rose-purple, bracteate, bisexual or unisexual, sometimes dioecious; calyx-tube short, usually 5, sometimes 7-11-lobed; petals persistent, linear or absent; stamens 5-10; ovary subsuperior; carpels 2, connate at the base. Capsules 2-locular, dehiscent between the styles. Seeds small,