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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 1010

     107. UMBELLIFERAE 繖形科
    KAO, MUH-TSUEN

    Perennial or annual herbs, rarely suffrutescent, caulescent or acaulescent; roots often thick,tuberous or fusiform; stems erect or creeping, usually fistulose or solid. Leaves alternate, simple or prominently divided and compound, the upper petioles frequently embracing young inflorescence with a dilated sheath-like base. Flowers yellow, white, pink, purplish or violet, bisexual or polygamous, in simple or compound umbels, sometimes capitate; calyx 5-toothed; petals 5, valvate or slightly imbricate in bud, free, deciduous, often incurved at apex; stamens 5, alternate with petals. The filaments filiform, incurved in bud; ovary inferior, bilocular; styles 2, often accrescent, usually with stylopodium; ovules solitary in each cell, pendulous. Fruit a schizocarp, bilocular, separating into 2 carpels (mericarps), these usually suspended from the top of the central column called carpophore, with 5 primary ribs and sometimes 4 intermediate or secondary ones; vittae (oil-tubes) often present; seeds with abundant endosperm and a small embryo.
    About 200 genera and 3,000 species distributed in the whole world. Sixteen genera, about 29 species and two varieties in Taiwan.

    LITERATURE

    1. Hiroe, M., Umbelliferae of Asia 1-219. 1958.
    2. Ohwi, J., F1. Japan 667-686. 1965.
    3. Walker, E. H., F1. Okinawa and southern Ryukyu Is. 789-799. 1976.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Low creeping herbs; leaves simple; flowers in small axillary simple subcapitate umbels.
    2. Leaves with a pair of free stipules at base of petiole; fruit without secondary ribs; involucres wanting or inconspicuous… 8. Hydrocotyle
    2. Leaves with petioles sheathing at base, without stipules; fruit with conspicouous secondary ribs and reticulate; involucres present and conspicuous… 3. Centella
    1. Slender to stout, erect or ascending herbs; leaves simple, ternate or pinnately compound; flowers usually pedicellate in compound umbels, rarely simple or sessile.
    3 Umbels simple; leaves 2-3 pinnatisect… 10. Oreomyrrhis
    3 Umbels variously compound; leaves simple, ternate or compound.
    4. Carpels with spreading or bristles.
    5. Prickles hooked; leaves 3-5 foliolate… 14. Sanicula
    5. Prickles or bristles not distinctly hooked; leaves 2-3 pinnately compound… 16. Torilis
    4. Carpels glabrous to hispid but not armed with hooks or prickles.
    6. Leaves simple or ternate.
    7. Leaves simple, entire, parallel venation… 2. Bupleurum
    7. Leaves ternate, serrate, palmate venation… 6. Cryptotaenia
    6. Leaves pinnately compound.
    8. Carpels terete or slightly compressed, either laterally or dorsally, the ribs banded, filiform, evident to obsolete, not prominently winged.
    9. Carpels elongate, linear, at least 3 times as long as broad… 11. Osmorhiza
    9. Carpels oblong, ovate or orbicular, usually less than twice as long as broad.
    10. Leaves 2-3 ternately compound; calyx-teeth prominent, persistent; ribs banded, carpophore wanting… 9. Oenanthe
    10. Leaves ternate or pinnate; calyx-teeth minute or obsolete; ribs filiform; carpophore present… 13. Pimpinella
    8. Carpels strongly flattened dorsally or slightly compressed, the lateral ribs prominently winged; the wings thin or corky.
    11. Carpels subterete or slightly compressed dorsally, but not strongly flattened.