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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 3

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  3: 10

     52. CRASSULACEAE 景天科
    TANG, WEI-SHIN and HUANG, TSENG-CHIENG
    Bryophyllum and Kalanchae by LIU, TANG-SHUI and CHUANG, NIAN-JUNE

    Annual or perennial, erect, ascending or prostrate, occasionally scandent, mostly succulent herbs, without milky latex. Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, usually simple, entire, serrate, lobed to pseudo-pinnate, pinnately or palmately nerved, fleshy, exstipulate. Flowers mostly in terminal cymes, rarely solitary or in spikes, corymbs or panicles, bisexual, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, mostly bracteate; sepals 3-5 or more, generally distinct or sometimes connate into a distinct broad tube, marcescent after anthesis; petals of same number as sepals, distinct or sometimes connate at base; stamens typically in 2-whorls (1-whorled sometimes absent), usually as many or twice as many as petals, generally hypogynous, distinct or adnate to petals or corolla-tube, the filaments free, rarely connate; anthers 2-celled, dehiscent longitudinally, introrse; gynoecium of 3 or more distinct or basally connate carpels (carpels usually as many as petals), superior, each mostly substended by a hypogynous scale-like nectariferous gland or rarely absent, 1-loculed, the ovules many or rarely few. Fruit follicular, membranaceous or coriaceous, dehiscent on adaxial side; seeds small, with straight embryo and usually fleshy and scanty endosperm.
    Thirty-five genera with 1,500 species widely distributed over the world except Australia; four genera in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Flowers 4-merous; stamens 2-whorled; leaves elliptic, occasionally ternate or 2-3-lobed, opposite.
    2. Flowers pendulous; calyx-lobes ovate; filaments at the base of the corolla tube… 1. Bryophyllum
    2. Flowers erect; calyx-lobes lanceolate; filaments at the central or top of the corolla tube… 3. Kalanchoe
    1. Flowers 5-merous, stamens 1-whorled, rare 2-whorled; leaves spathulate or cylindric, alternate, opposite or rosulate.
    3. Ovary attenuate at base; carpels distinct; leaves serrate; petals green-purple… 2. Hylotelephium
    3. Ovary not attenuate at base; carpels almost connate; leaves entire; petals yellow or white… 4. Sedum

    1. BRYOPHYLLUM Salisb. 落地生根屬
    LIU, TANG-SHUI and CHUNG, NIAN-JUNE

    Perennial herbs; stems erect, fleshy and glabrous. Leaves opposite, simple or ternate, crenate. Flowers 4-merous, large, pendent, in spreading panicles, with opposite branches; calyx with a long inflated tube, 4-lobed; stamens 8, in two whorls, inserted at base or the middle of the corolla-tube; scales 4, hypogenous; carpels 4, free or connate at base; ovules many. Follicles 4; seeds many and small.
    About four species in tropical Africa, chiefly in Madagascar, of which, one extends to the Tropics of the whole world. Taiwan, only one species naturalized at the lowland of the whole island.

    1. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 40: 309. 1876; Liu & Chung in Fl. Taiwan 3: 12. 1977. 落地生根 Pl.5
    Cotyledon pinnatum Lam., Encycl. 2: 141. 1786.
    A fleshy and glabrous perennial herb; stems erect, 30-100 cm high, few branched. Leaves opposite, the upper ones mostly pinnate, the lower ones simple; leaflets 3-5, elliptic or ovate, crenate, 10-15 cm long, thickly fleshy. Flowers in panicles, pendulous; calyx cylindric, 2.5-3.5 cm long, purplish green; corolla