台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 2
subcordate and often somewhat oblique at base, echinate-serrate or crenate-serrate, pubescent beneath at least while young or nearly glabrous or pubescent only on the veins, with small lepidote-glands below, lateral veins 13-26 pairs; petioles 0.5-1.9 cm long; stipules long-triangular with serrulate margins, soon deciduous. Inflorescence a catkin, about 8-26 cm long; flowers from June to July, fragrant. Staminate flowers yellowish-white; perianth 5-6-cleft, 2 mm high, 3 mm wide, the lobes elliptic, nearly glabrous except central parts outside, tomentose inside; stamens 10-12, filaments 5-6 mm long, glabrous, anthers 0.4 mm long, 0.2 mm wide, glabrous; reduced ovaries, 3-4, 0.8 mm long, 0.3 mm wide, densely long-hairy. Involucre 4-5 mm high, 5-7 mm wide, 2-3 clustered at base of staminate inflorescence, scales of involucre lanceolate to broadly triangular; pistillate flowers 3, clustered in one involucre, 6 mm long, 2 mm wide; perianth 6-cleft, ovate, 1.5 mm high, 2 mm wide; ovary 4-6-celled, 1 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, styles 4-9, very long, cylindric, stigmas pointed. Fruit compressed, glabrous, 5 cm high, 8 cm broad, 4 cm thick, maturing from Oct. to Nov.; cupules branched-spined, usually 4-lobed, dehiscent, spines of involucre 1-1.5 cm long, somewhat hairy; nuts 2-3, rarely up to 5, enclosed in one cupule, 1.8-2.8 cm high, 2-3 cm wide, 1.5-2.2 cm thick, usually broader than high, deep-brown, lustrous; cotyledons remaining in the nut at germination.
Japan, Korea, mainland China and Taiwan. Taiwan, cultivated in Chitung, Hsinchu; Wushe and Meiyuen near Puli, Tatsupan near Chiayi; Shienpin, Liukuei, Kaohsiung, etc. from sea level to 900 m altitude.
CHIAYI: Tatsupan, Tomiya 25. NANTOU: Wushe, Liao 40; Meiyuen, Puli, Liao 11403. KAOHSIUNG: Shienpin, Liukuei, Yang 60, Liao 39.
2. Castanea mollissima Bl., Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1: 286. 1850; Liu & Liao in Fl. Taiwan 2: 50. pl. 207. 1976. 板栗 Pl.19
Deciduous trees up to 20 m high, sometimes shrubs; branchlets with lenticels, pubescent; winter buds ovoid, densely gray-hairy. Leaves elliptic-oblong to lanceolate-oblong, 12-22 cm long, 4.5-7.3 cm wide, acuminate at apex, rounded or truncate at base, echinate-serrate, with whitish tomentum or soft pubescence beneath, at least on veins, without lepidote glands, the lateral veins 12-21 pairs; petioles short-pilose, 1-2.5 cm long. Inflorescence 4-17 cm long, flowers from April to July; staminate flowers about 4.5 mm high, 4 mm wide; perianth 6-cleft, tomentose outside, long-hairy inside; stamens 10-12, filaments 5-6 mm long, glabrous, anthers 0.2 mm long, 0.1 mm wide, glabrous, longitudinally dehiscent; reduced ovaries hairy, about 0.7 mm long, 0.3 mm wide; pistillate flowers about 6 mm long 2 mm wide, usually 2-3 clustered in an involucre; involucres 2-3, usually borne at base of staminate inflorescence; ovary 4-7-celled, styles 4-10, stigmas pointed. Cupules 5-6 cm high, 4-8 cm broad, 4.5-5 thick, spined, spines 2-3-branched, 1.2-2 cm long, pubescent; nuts maturing from Oct. to Nov., 1.8-2.6 cm high, 2-3 cm broad, usually broader than high, scars smaller than base.
India, Sikkim, mainland China, Korea and Taiwan. Taiwan, cultivated in Taipei, Nantou, Taitung, etc., from sea level up to 1,200 m altitude.
NANTOU: Chitou, Liao 41. CHIAYI: Liao & Kuo 1623.
2. CASTANOPSIS (Don) Spach 栲屬 (苦櫧)
Evergreen trees, rarely shrubs; buds with numerous scales. Leaves in 2 or 5 rows, entire, serrate or dentate, coriaceous, ovate, long-ovate, oblong or lanceolate. Inflorescence an upright simple or branched, unisexual catkin; staminate flowers with 5-6-cleft perianth, glabrous outside, hairy inside; stamens usually 8-12, filaments very long, anthers 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent. Pistillate flowers usually in short spikes, 1-3 in an involucre, styles 2-4, stigmas pointed. Cupules ovoid or subglobose,