台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 2
5. FAGACEAE 殼斗科
Evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs. Leaves usually alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, simple, entire, wavy, serrate, echinate or cleft, petiolate; stipules caducous, pinnately veined, glabrous or tomentose beneath. Plants are monoecious, flowers small, apetalous; staminate flowers in spikes (catkins) or heads, with 4-7-lobed perianth; stamens 3-12 or more, anthers glabrous or hairy, 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent; reduced ovary present or not; pistillate flowers solitary or 3-4-clustered, usually in short spikes, sometimes at the base of staminate catkins, with 4-8-lobed perianth adnate to the ovary; ovary 3-7-celled, placentation axile, ovules 2 in each cell, but only 1 in the ripened ovary, styles 3-10, rarely 1-2, usually as many as cells, stigmas pointed or enlarged with flat or tuberculate portion. Nuts ovoid, oblong, depressed-globose or 3-angled, enclosed partly or wholly in a cupule (involucre), glabrous or hairy or winged; cupules regularly or irregularly dehiscent or not, covered with imbricate scales, scales free or united into 6-11 concentric rings, smooth, muricate, tomentose or long-spined, spines simple or branched, hard or soft, often tuberculate-scaled; seed usually solitary by abortion, without endosperm, cotyledons 2, fleshy.
Widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, one genus in the southern hemisphere; about 10 genera and 600 species worldwide, eight genera with 59 taxa (including 40 native spp., six introduced spp., nine native vars., one introduced var. and three native forms) in Taiwan.
Hsu, Y. C. and H. W. Jen 1975. The classification and Distribution of Fagaceae of Yunnan Province (I.). Act. Phytotax. Sinica 13(4): 9-26. pl. 2-f. 3. pl. 3-f. 2. pl. 5-f. 3. pl. 10-f. 1.
Hsu, Y. C. and H. W. Jen 1976. The classification and Distribution of Fagaceae of Yunnan Province (II.). Act. Phytotax. Sinica 14(2): 77-88. pl. 10-f. 4. pl. 16-f. 1.
Li, H. L. 1953. Taxonomic notes on the Fagaceae of Formosa. Bulletin of the Torrey, Botanical Club 80(4): 317-324. Pennsylvania, U. S. A.
Liao, J. C. 1994. The Taxonomic Revisions of the Family Fagaceae in Taiwan (ed II.). College of Agriculture, National Taiwan University. Pp. 242.
Lin, W. F. and T. Liu 1965. Studies on the classification of Fagaceae in Taiwan. Bulletin of Taiwan Forest Research Institute (110): 1-59. 2. pl. 1. f. 1.
Nakai, T. 1939. Castanopsis, Pasania and their allies in the Japanese Empire (I. II.) J. Jap. Bot. 15(4): 185-204. 15(5): 257-276.
Suzuki, H. 1931. On the determination of Formosan species of Fagaceae, basing on the Morphological characters of the leaves (with 5 plates). Silvia 2(2): 1-30. 51-82.
KEY TO GENERA
1. Staminate flowers 5-6 or more in umbellate heads, perianth usually long; pistillate flowers usually 2, sessile; ovary triangular in cross section; cupules long-stalked, with soft spines; nuts 2, bearing 3 winglike angles; leaves with fascicled hairs at base of lateral veins on the lower surface; cotyledons epigeal… 4. Fagus
1. Staminate flowers many in slender catkins, perianth campanulate, short; pistillate flowers l-many in spikes, with very short pedicels, ovary rounded in cross section; cupules sessile or very short-pedicellate, with prickly spines or not; nuts 1-3, without wings; leaves not as above (with exception of two Pasania spp.); cotyledons hypogeal.
2. Staminate flowers in pendulous catkins; stamens 3-6, anthers large, without ovary; pistillate flowers with