台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 1
7. MARATTIACEAE 觀音座蓮舅科
DEVOL, CHARLES E. and SHIEH, WANG-CHUENG
Eusporangiate, terrestrial ferns; caudex short, globose, erect; or rhizome fleshy, dorsi-ventral, creeping to suberect; dictyostelic; cortex without sclerenchyma. Fronds pinnately compound, often very large, circinnate when young, base of stipe with 2 large leathery persistent stipules; pulvinus at or near base of stipe and pulvini at bases of rachillae. Sporangia arranged in closely arranged, elongate or circular sori, or synangia. Gametophyte green, lobed, the median region thickened; endophytic fungi present.
Considered as one family with 6 genera, but some prefer to divide it into four distinct families.
Three genera in Taiwan.
KEY TO GENERA
1. Sporangia fused into synangia, caudex erect, globose; fronds bipinnate-tripinnate… 3. Marattia
1. Sporangia free, arranged in 2 linear, contiguous rows.
2. Caudex erect, globose; fronds large, bipinnate; sori submarginal… 1. Angiopteris
2. Rhizome short, suberect, dorsi-ventral; fromds pinnate;sori medial… 2. Archangiopteris
1. ANGIOPTERIS Hoffm. 觀音座蓮屬
Caudex short, globose; stipes green, fleshy, with pulvinus at base. Fronds large, bipinnate, pinnae with pulvini at bases of rachillae; veins free, recurrent veins often present between true veins, running from margin towards costule. Sporangia dehiscing by a longitudinal slit. Spores trilete, scabrate. Young plants much like Archangiopteris; lamina pinnate; stipe with pulvinus about 255 cm above base (small bi-pinnate fronds lack this pulvinus); pinnae narrower than in Archangiopteris (about 2 cm broad) and have recurrent veins.
Some consider all taxa as varieties of one species, others divide this genus into over 100 species. Two species recognized by us from Taiwan, some recognize 10 from Taiwan.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Recurrent veins extending about half way between margin and costule… 1. A. lygodiifolia
1. Recurrent veins extending nearly to costule… 2. A. palmiformis
1. Angiopteris lygodiifolia Rosenst. In Med. Riiks Herb. 31: 2. 1917; DeVol in Fl. Taiwan 1: 73. pl. 20. 1975. 觀音座蓮 Pl.23
Angiopteris suboppositifolia auct. Non de Vriese: Nakai in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 41: 76. 1927.
Young fronds pinnate; pinnae larger and wider than in mature fronds; mature fronds bipinnate, about 2 m long; stipes green, smooth, streaked; pinnae 35-70 cm long; pinnules 5-15 cm long (usually 8-10), 10-20 mm wide (usually 10-12); veins simple or once forked; margins serrate; recurrent veins extending about half way to costule, Sori about 1.5 mm long, about 1 mm from margin.