台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 1
8. CUPRESSACEAE 柏科
LI, HUI-LIN and KENG, HSUAN
Resinous trees or shrubs. Leaves small, usually scale-like, rarely needle-like, opposite and decussate, evergreen. Staminate and ovuliferous cones monoecious or dioecious. Staminate cones consisting of numerous scales, the staminate scales with 2-6 pollen sacs. Ovuliferous cones with few to many, opposite or whorled scales, each with 1 to several erect ovules on the upper side. Mature cones woody or coriaceous, dehiscent and with winged seeds, or berrylike with fleshy connate scales and terete or angular seeds. Embryo with 2, rarely 5-6 cotyledons.
Genera 20, species about 120, widely scattered over both hemispheres; three genera are found in Taiwan. Species of Callitris, Cupressus, Thuja (or Platycladus) and Thujopsis are introduced and cultivated.
KEY TO GENERA
1. Mature cones woody or coriaceous, dehiscent.
2. Cones subglobose; cone scales peltate, 4-6 pairs, nearly all fertile… 1. Chamaecyparis
2. Cones ovoid or oblong-ovoid; cone scales flattened, 3-4 pairs only the middle pair fertile… 2. Calocedrus
1. Mature cones fleshy, berry-like, with 2-6 connate scales… 3. Juniperus
1. CHAMAECYPARIS Spach 扁柏屬
Tall trees of pyramidal habit, the bark smooth, peeling off in strips or scales or fissured into ridges, the branches spreading, the branchlets usually flattened. Leaves opposite, scale-like, ovate to rhomboid, acuminate to obtuse, entire. Staminate cones ovoid to oblong, yellow, rarely red, the staminate scales with 2-4 pollen sacs. Ovuliferous cones globose, consisting of 4-6 pairs of decussate scales, each scale with 2 to 5 erect ovules. Mature cones globose to ovoid-globose, ripening in the first season, the scales peltate, pointed or raised in the middle. Seeds 2, rarely up to 5 in each scale, slightly compressed, with a thin, membranaceous wing; cotyledons 2. Chromosome number n=12 (Kuo et al., 1972).
Six species in North America, Japan and Taiwan; the following two are in Taiwan.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Leaf apex acute; mature cones oblong, 8-9 mm in diameter, the scales 10-13… 1. C. formosensis
1. Leaf apex obtuse; mature cones globose, 10-11 mm in diameter, the scales 8-10… 2. C. obtusa var. formosana
1. Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum. In Bot. Mag. Tokyo 15: 137. 1901; Li in Fl. Taiwan 1: 536. pl. 190. 1975; Cheng et al. in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 7: 341. pl. 79. f. 4-7. 1978. 紅檜 Pl.232, Photo 113
A very large tree, up to 65 m high and 6.5 m in diameter, the bark more or less reddish brown, the branches spreading, the branchlets flattened. Leaves scale-like, triangular, green above, pale whitish beneath, the apex acute to acuminate. Mature cones oblong-ovoid, 10-12 mm long, 8-9 mm across, the scales 10-13, peltate. Seeds narrowly winged, about 3 mm in diameter.