台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 1
7. TAXODIACEAE 杉科
LI, HUI-LIN and KENG, HSUAN
Resinous trees. Leaves linear to lanceolate, generally spirally arranged, evergreen. Staminate and ovuliferous cones mostly monoecious. Staminate cones consisting of many staminate scales, each scale with 2-6 pollen sacs. Ovuliferous cones with few to many flat or peltate ovuliferous scales, each scale with 2-8 ovules, without distinct bracts. Mature cones more or less woody, the scales with 2-8 seeds. Seeds often narrowly winged; embryo with 2-15 cotyledons.
Genera eight, species about 15, they are mostly of the northern temperate regions; two indigenous genera in Taiwan. Besides, species of four genera, namely, Cryptomeria, Metasequoia, Sequoia and Taxodium are introduced; Cryptomeria japonica D. Don is widely cultivated.
KEY TO GENERA
1. Leaves all alike, linear-lanceolate, flat, glaucous beneath; cone scales ovate, serrulate, aristate… 1. Cunninghamia
1. Leaves dimorphic, those on adult stem scale-like, triangular or falcate, those on younger stems linear, laterally compressed, sharply pointed; cone scales obcordate, nearly smooth or wavy, often mucronate… 2. Taiwania
1. CUNNINGHAMIA R. Brown 杉屬
Trees of broad pyramidal habit, the bark brownish, scaling off in irregular plates and exposing the reddish inner bark, the branches whorled, spreading, pendulous at the ends. Leaves rigid, densely spirally arranged, but spreading in 2 ranks, linear-lanceolate, serrulate, the base decurrent. Staminate cones cylindric-oblong, in small terminal clusters. Ovuliferous cones globose, 1-2 at the ends of the branches. Mature cones ovoid, the scales coriaceous, broad-ovate, aristate, irregularly serrate, persistent, each with 3 seeds. Seeds narrow-winged; cotyledons 2.
Two species in eastern Asia. One, C. konishii Hayata, is endemic to Taiwan. Another, C. Lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. Native to southern and western China, is cultivated in Taiwan.
1. Cunninghamia konishii Hayata in Gard. Chron. Ⅲ. 43: 194. 1908; Li in Fl. Taiwan 1: 530. pl. 188. 1975; Cheng et al. in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 7: 289. pl. 66. f. 14-15. 1978. 巒大杉 Pl.230, Photo 110, 111
Cunninghamia kawakamii Hayata, Icon. Pl. Form. 5: 207. pl. 16. 1916.
Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. Var. konishii (Hayata) Fujita in Trans, Nat. Hist. Soc. Form. 22: 49, 476. 1932.
Cunninghamia lanceolata auct. Non Hook.: Sasaki in Trans. Nat, Hist. Form. 15: 184. 1925.
A large tree, up to 50 m in height and 1-2.5 m in diameter, the branches spreading, the bark brownish, fissured into scales. Leaves linear-lanceolate, about 2 cm long, 2.5 mm broad, the apex acute, the base decurrent. Mature cones globose-ovoid, 2-2.5 cm long, 2 cm in diameter. Seeds 3 or sometimes 2 to a scale, flat, 3-5 mm in diameter, narrowly winged. Chromosome number n=11 (Kuo et al., 1972).