台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 1
6. PINACEAE 松科
LI, HUI-LIN and KENG, HSUAN
Resinous trees. Leaves acicular or linear, solitary or fascicled, persistent, rarely decidous.Staminate and ovuliferous cones monoecious; staminate cones consisting of numerous scales, the staminate scale with 2 pollen sacs. Ovuliferous cones with numerous scales, spirally arranged, each scale with 2 anatropous ovules on the inner side. Mature cones woody. Seeds 2 to each scale, usually winged; embryo with 2-15 cotyledons.
About 12 genera, and 200 species, in the northern hemisphere from the subarctic to subtropical zones and tropical mountains; the following six genera are native to Taiwan. Another two genera, Cedrus and Larix, plus many exotic species of Pinus are cultivated.
KEY TO GENERA
1. Branches with only long shoots; leaves solitary.
2. Mature cones upright.
3. Cone scales deciduous; leaves grooved above, usually with glaucous bands beneath… 1. Abies
3. Cone scales persistent; leaves keeled on both surfaces, pale green beneath… 2. Keteleeria
2. Mature cones reflexed or pendulous, the scales persistent.
4. Bracts exserted, conspicuous;branchlets nearly smooth… 5. Pseudotsuga
4. Bracts not exserted; branchlets roughened by persistent leaf-bases.
5. Leaves flattened and with stomatic bands beneath or on both surfaces; short-petioled, with only 1 resin duct in each leaf;cones small… 6. Tsuga
5. Leaves usually quadrangular or flattened, with stomatic bands above, sessile, with 2 resin ducts in each leaf; cones large… 3. Picea
1. Branches with long and short shoots; leaves in fascicles of 2-5, often sheathed at base by scarious bud scales… 4. Pinus
1. ABIES Miller 冷杉屬
Trees, of pyramidal shape; the bark smooth and thin on younger trees, often thick and furrowed on old ones, the branches whorled, spreading. Leaves in 2 ranks, spreading, linear-lanceolate,flat,with 2 white stomatic bands beneath,and with 2 lateral resin ducts. Staminate cones pendent, ovoid to cylindric-oblong. Ovuliferous cones ovoid to oblong, consisting of numerous closely imbricate scales, each scale with 2 ovules. Mature cones large and erect, the scales falling off with the seeds. Seeds ovoid or oblong, with a large thin wing; embryo with 4-10 cotyledons.
About 40 species in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, generally mountain trees; one species occurs in Taiwan.
1. Abies kawakamii (Hayata) Ito in Encycl. Jap. 2: 167. 1909; Kanehira, Form. Trees rev. ed. 2. 39. f. 7. 1936; Liu, Monog. Gen. Abies 364. pls. 6 & 57c. 1971; Li in Fl. Taiwan 1: 516. pl. 179. 1975; Cheng et al. in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 7: 88. pl. 19. f. 14-19. 1978. 台灣冷杉 Pl.221, Photo 92, 93
Abies mariesii Mast. var. kawakamii Hayata in Journ. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 25 (19): 223. f. 14. 1908.