台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 1
2. TAXACEAE 紅豆杉科
LI, HUI-LIN and KENG, HSUAN
Resinous trees or shrubs. Leaves persistent, alternate, often 2-ranked, linear to lanceolate, entire, with 2 broad grayish green stomatic bands beneath. Staminate and ovuliferous cones dioecious, rarely monoecious. Staminate cones usually solitary, or in small clusters, axillary; staminate scales peltate or apically thickened, with 3-9 pollen scas. Ovuliferous cones solitary, consisting of several pairs of decussate scales; ovule solitary, erect. Seeds drupe-like or berry-like, with a bony shell, partly or totally surrounded by a fleshy, often colored, aril; embryo with 2 cotyledons.
Genera four with about 18 species; besides Taxus which is represented by one species in Taiwan, the other three: Austrotaxus is a monotypic genus in New Caledonia, Nothotaxus, a monotypic genus in eastern China, and Torreya, with about six species is found in eastern Asia and North America.
1. TAXUS L. 紅豆杉屬
Trees or shrubs, with reddish scaly bark, the branches and branchlets alternate, spreading. Leaves spirally arranged but spreading in 2 ranks, linear, flat, pointed and stalked, with 2 broad grayish green or tawny yellow bands beneath, without resin ducts. Staminate cones head-like, consisting of 6-14 peltate staminate scales, each with 5-9 pollen sacs. Ovulate cones consisting of several imbricate scales, bearing a terminal ovule with a disc at base. Seeds bony-coated, ovoid, slightly compressed, partly enclosed in a fleshy scarlet, urn- or cup-like aril.
About eight to ten species in the northern hemisphere, one species in Taiwan.
1. Taxus sumatrana (Miq.) de Laub., Kalikasan 7: 151. 1978, and in Fl. Mal. Ser. I. 10: 349. f. 1-4. 1988. 南洋紅豆杉 Pl.213, Photo 80
Taxus chinensis Rehder in Journ. Arnold Arb. 1: 51. 1919, 4: 119. 1923; Kanehira, Form. Tress rev. ed. 31. 1936.
Taxus chinensis (Pilg.) Rehd. Var. mairei (Lem'ee & L'evl.) Cheng et L. K. Fu in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 7: 443. 1978.
Taxus speciosa Florin in Acta Hort. Berg. 14: 382. p1. 6. 1948.
Taxus celebica (Warburg) Li, Woody Fl. Taiwan 34. f. 2. 1963.
Taxus cuspidata auct. Non Sieb. & Zucc.: Kanehira, Form Trees 616. 1917.
Taxus wallichiana auct. Non Zucc.: Foxworthy in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6. Bot. 166. 1911; Yamamoto in Journ. Soc. Trop. Agr. 10: 182. f. 42. 1938.
Taxus mairei (Lemee & Levl.) S.Y.Hu ex Liu, Ill.Nat. Intr. Lign. Pl. Taiwan 1: 16. f. 11. 1960.
A large tree, up to 15 m high and 1 m in diameter, with reddish bark, the branchlets short, slender, spreading. Leaves linear-lanceolate, falcate, about 1.2-2.7cm long, 2-2.5 cm broad, abruptly pointed, the base acute and decurrent, dark green above, pale green and with 2 broad tawny yellow bands beneath. Seeds compressed-ovoid, about 6-7 mm long, 3-4 mm wide, slightly 2-angled, sometimes 3-angled, the fleshy aril reddish in color. Chromosome number x=12 (Chuang & Hu. 1963).