台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 1
35. MARSILEACEAE 蘋科
DEVOL, CHARLES E. and SHIEH, WANG-CHUENG
Small aquatic ferns, rooting in mud; rhizomes long creeping, siphonostelic, the cortex with many large air cavities. Leaves filiform or with 2-4 leaflets. Sporocarps borne near base of stipe or in axil of stipe and rhizome, containing a gelatinous ribbon to which are attached 2 rows of sori; a row of megasporangia in the center of each sorus, with a row of microsporangia on either side.
Three genera, one in Taiwan.
1. MARSILEA L. 蘋屬
Leaves with 4 leaflets, the venation often anastomosing dichotomous. Sporocarps with hard and hairy coats; 2 small projections, called "teeth", usually brone at the stalk end, the lower tooth usually blunt, the upper tooth usually more slender, sharp-pointed. In the wet season, rhizomes long, stipes long, leaves floating on surfacce of water; in the dry season, rhizomes short, stipes short.
Over 60 species, one in Taiwan.
1. Marsilea crenata Presl., Rel. Haenk, 1: 84. pl. 12. f. 13. 1825; DeVol in Fl. Taiwan 1: 62. pl. 15. 1975. 南國田字草 Pl.209
Summer, aquatic form: Plants growing in deep water have their leaflets floating on water, the succulent stipes up to 30 cm long; those in shallow water have erect stipes 8-10 cm long; leaflets 20 mm long, entire or crenate; areolae linear, narrow; rhizome internodes 6-9 cm long. Winter, terreestrial form: Plants growing on drained fields much small, the internodes short, about 1-4 mm long, the stipes 2-8 cm long; leaflets 5-10 mm long; sporocarps 1-2, borne at or near base of stipe, on separate stalks, oval, hairy, the upper tooth acute, the lower tooth blunt.
Distributed in Malaya, Indonesia, the Philippines, Hongkong and Taiwan. Growing in paddy fields, along ditches and ponds.
TAIPEI: NTU Campus, DeVol 7617, Kuo 6822; Neihu, Kuo 780*. ILAN: Lotung, Yamamoto 2632. TAICHUNG: Tongshih, DeVol 4386. NANTOU: Sun Moon Lake, Kudo & Sasaki 15525. YUNLIN: Shihkuei, DeVol 7757. CHIAYI: Chiayi City, Yamashita 30. TAINAN: Tainan City, Moritani 78. PINGTUNG: Liukiusyo, Hosokawa 1604; Kuskus, Kudo & Sasaki 15912; Mutan, Hsu 14277.