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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 1

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  1: 414

     28. ATHYRIACEAE 蹄蓋蕨科
    SHIEH, WANG-CHUENG, DEVOL, CHARLES E. and KUO, CHEN-MENG

    Nearly all terrestrial ferns; rhizome usually short and stout, sometimes creeping and slender; scales thin, light brown to dark brown, lanceolate or ovate. Stipes with 2 vascular strands at base and uniting into a single U-shaped strand above; lamina usually thin, pinnate to decompound, rarely simple; veins usually free, goniopteroid in one genus, and forming areolae in two other genera; some species bearing multicellular septae hairs, usually glabrous; rachis groove generally open to receive rachilla grooves but not in all genera. Sori linear, single or double. J-shaped, sub-reniform or round; indusia usually present, sometimes small and fugacious, in Woodsia borne below the sporangia.
    A family of about 15 genera, seven in Taiwan.

    KEY TO GENERA
    1. Veins anastomosing.
    2. Veins goniopteroid; multicellular hairs plentiful… 5. Diplazium
    2. Veins not goniopteroid; without multicellular hairs.
    3. Fronds 1- pinnatifid or with only lower 1- 2 pairs of free pinnae… 5. Diplazium
    3. Fronds 1- pinnatifid… 4. Diplaziopsis
    1. Veins free.
    4. Stipe and rachis more or less pubescent.
    5. Hairs unicellular… 7. Woodsia
    5. Hairs multicellular.
    6. Fronds pinnate, stipe densely pubescent… 5. Diplazium
    6. Fronds bipinnatifid to decompound.
    7. Fronds bipinnatifid; sori linear… 1. Athyrium
    7. Fronds bipinnate to 4-pinnatifid; sori round.
    8. Fronds tripinnate to 4-pinnatifid; multicellular hairs abundant on stipe… 3. Cystopteris
    8. Fronds to tripinnatifid; multicellular hairs absent from stipe… 1. Athyrium
    4. Stipe and rachis glabrous.
    9. Base of lamina and lower pinnae arficulate to rachis… 6. Gymnocarpium
    9. Not as above.
    10. Sori round.
    11. Sori exindusiate… 2. Cornopteris
    11. Sori indusiate.
    12. Indusia superior… 1. Athyrium
    12. Indusia inferior… 3. Cystopteris
    10. Sori linear, or J - shaped, single or double.
    13. Sori exindusiate… 2. Cornopteris
    13. Sori indusiate.
    14. Sori crossing over the veinlets; basal stipe scales thin, ovate-lanceolate, usually pale brown… 1. Athyrium
    14. Sori linear, usually double, not crossing over veinlets; basal stipe scales firm, usually very narrow, linear lanceolate, dark brown or black… 5. Diplazium