台灣植物誌 第二版 Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition Vol. 1
Vascular plants rooting at the base, or the rhizomes and stolons bearing adventitous roots; stems erect, pendent, creeping, scandent or corm-like; microphyllous leaves with a single central vein; sporophylls arranged in compact strobili or loosely spaced on the stem, sporangia borne in axils of sporophylls or on the base of sporophylls; homosporous or heterosporous.
2. LYCOPODIACEAE 石松科
TSAI, JINN-LAI and SHIEH, WANG-CHUENG
Terrestrial, scrambling on epiphytic vascular plants with aerial stems usually branching. Leaves small, simple, spirally arranged or imbricate or subverticillate, with a single median vein. Sporangia solitary, in axils of normal leaves or in terminal spikes forming strobili. Spores minute, homosporous.
A family of two genera and about 250 species, abundant in tropical and subtropical forests; one genus and 21 taxa in Taiwan.
DeVol, C. E. 1965. The Pteidophypta of Taiwan 2. Taiwania 11: 41-55.
Kuo, C. M. 1985. Taxonomy and phytogeogaphy of Taiwanese pteridophytes, Taiwania 30: 5-100.
1. LYCOPODIUM L. 石松屬
Stems erect, pendent, creeping or scandent. Leaves microphyllous, usually monomorphous, mostly in close spirals, whorls, or opposite pairs and decussate. Sporangia sessile to short-stalked, usually reniform, single on the adaxial surface of a sporophyll, similar to sterile leaves or quite different, usually near the base, or on the stem near the axile; sporophylls variable in size and when minute the axis usually much condensed with the numerous sporophylls forming a strobilus; strobili sessile or peduncled. Spores yellow, variously reticulate or sculptured.
About 240 species with 21 taxa in Taiwan.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Stems monopodial, with main axis and branches; sporophylls very different from sterile leaues.
2. Sterile leaves very narrow, subulate, spiral; strobili 4-9 mm long… 4. L. cernuum
2. Sterile leaves flat or scale like; strobili longer than 1 cm.
3. Main stems long scandent reaching to tree tops; leaves adnate by more than 1/2 their length, with free tips… 3. L. casuarinoides
4. Leaves dimorphic or trimorphic, decussate; branches flattened… 6. L. complanatum
4. Leaves monomorphic, spiral; branches terete.
5. Strobili sessile.
6. Creeping stems prostrate, erect branches simple or only once forked; leaves minutely serrulate, pointing outwards… 1. L. annotinum