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Plants of Taiwan

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    台灣植物誌 第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition    Vol. 1

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    台灣植物誌第二版  Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition  1: 144

     14. CYATHEACEAE 桫欏科
    SHIEH, WANG-CHUENG

    Mostly tree ferns with massive, tall, erect, usually unbranched stems, the lower part of trunk usually covered with interlacing roots (a few species have short prostrate rhizome), dictyostelic. Fronds often very large, arranged in a terminal crown, bi-tripinnatifid (one genus pinnate); veins usually free, forked (one genus anastomosing); stipes persistent or caducous, hairy and (or) scaly; stipes scales conform (setiferous) i.e. with all cells in parallel rows, or marginate (flabelloid)i.e. with marginal cells oriented differently than central ones; leaf-scar pattern usually with 3-series of small vascular bundles; aerophores borne along side of stipe, occuring as streaks arranged in 1 to 3 lines (not so obvious on dried specimens as on living plants). Sori round, borne on backs of veins, with or without indusia; indusia of various shapes; sporangia ovoid, with a complete oblique annulus (i.e. not interrupted at the stalk), stalk long or short, paraphyses present. Spores trilete.
    Four genera, with about 800 species, one genus in Taiwan.

    1. CYATHEA Sm. 桫欏屬

    Stipes smooth or spiny, sometimes with hairs; costa usually pubescent on upper surface; veins free; indusium absent or scale-like to globose.
    About 700 species, pantropic, seven from Taiwan.

    KEY TO SPECIES
    1. Scales on stipe of conform type… 3. C. lepifera
    1. Scales on stipe of marginate type.
    2. Rhizomes prostrate or stems erect, very short; stipes and rachis brown, purple or black, polished; exindusiate; veins simple; lower surface with scales.
    3. Rhizome prostrate; stipe and rachis brown; stipe scales brown, linear, much widened at base; fronds 50-150 cm long, lanceolate, bipinnate to tripinnatifid; ultimate segments serrate-dentate; scales on costae bullate with short, stiff, dark brown tips, base 0.1-0.2 mm broad… 2. C. hancockii
    3. Caudex erect; stipe and rachis purple to black; stipe scales dense, lanceolate, very long attennate, brown with pale margins; fronds 1-2m long, breadly deltoid, tripinnatifid; ultimate segments serrate; scales on costae ovate to lanceolate, more or less clathrate, 0.7 mm broad at base… 5. C. metteniana
    2. Stems erect, at least l m tall.
    4. Stipe and rachis brown or purple, polished; fronds bipinnate, lower surface without scales or hairs; basal stipe scales brown, narrowly lanceolate; ultimate segmants crenulate, dentate or lobed (cut 1/4 or less to costa); veinlets in 4-5 pairs per segments; exindusiate… 6. C. podophylla
    4. Stipes not polished; fronds tripinnatifid to tripinnate; indusia present, at least on young fronds.
    5. Indusia globose or cup-like.
    6. Indusia thin, membranous, fugacious; ultimate segments with serrulate margins; lower surface glabrous, with small thin, ovate, flat scales along costae and costules; stipe and rachis spiny; stipe scales brown… 7. C. spinulosa
    6. Indusia firm, brown, cup-like, opening towards margin; ultimate segments entire, margins often inrolled, lower surface of rachis, rachillae, and costal densely covered with very small brown scales and large thin pale lanceolate scales; costules bearing many small bullate scales… 4. C. loheri