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Plants of Taiwan

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    Orchidaceae   蘭科

    SU, Horng-Jye

    本科有 111 屬 共 470 種

    Terrestrial, epiphytic or saprophytic perennial herbs with rhizomes, corms, root-stem tuberoids or tuberous roots. Stems monopodial or sympodial, leafy or scapose, long or short, often thickened and forming pseudobulbs. Leaves radical or cauline, spiral or alternate and often distichous, convolute or conduplicate, variously shaped, sometimes all reduced to scales, often sheathed at base, sheath nearly always closed and encircling stem. Inflorescences terminal or lateral, spicate, racemose or paniculate, or with solitary flower; peduncles from various positious of stem, scapes from rhizome or base of pseudobulb. Flowers usually zygomorphic, often resupinate through twist of ovary for 180o, perianth epigynous, composed of 6 petaloid segments in 2 whorls, free or variously connate in each whorl; sepals (3 outer segments) imbricate or subvalvate; petals (3 inner segments) usually alternate to sepals, middle petal (lip or labellum) usually different in shape and often complicated in structure; lip variously shaped, sometimes 3-lobed, mostly placed in an abaxial position on account of resupination, base often produced into sac or spur; stamens and pistil fused together forming column, rarely separated; stamens 1 or 2, anthers 2-8-locular, sometimes with reduced partitions, opening by lengthwise slit, pollens rarely granular, generally agglutinated into masses or compact bodies (pollinia); pollinia mealy (powdery), sectile (consisting of small massulas) or waxy (bony), 2, 4, 6 or 8, naked (without definite accessory structure), or with accessory structures forming set of pollinarium, either with one end extended into softer sterile caudicle developed in anther and attached by caudicle to viscidium, or connected by sterile hyaline stipe developed outside anther, stipe derived from epidermis of rostellum (tegula stipe) or formed by apex of rostellum (hamulus stipe); ovary inferior, usually 1-locular with 3 parietal placentas, often produced at apex into semiterete column bearing anther and stigma; stigma basically 3-lobed or with 3 stigmatic areas, lobes usually confluent in single concave or convex area on ventral side of column, or reduced to 2 discrete lateral lobes on ventral or lateral sides of column, apex of median lobe often transformed into small outgrowth (rostellum) lying between anther and receptive stigmatic areas, portion of rostellum sometimes modified into small viscid disk or viscidium attaching to pollinia or their stipes; ovules numerous and minute, anatropous. Fruits usually capsule, mostly opening laterally by 3 or 6 longitudinal slits. Seeds numerous, usually minute, dust-like, without endosperm; embryo not differentiated.

    About 500 genera and more than 24,000 species, cosmopolitan, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, extending into temperate and subarctic areas; 101 genera with 322 species, 3 subspecies and 5 varieties in Taiwan.

    Data Source

    SU, Horng-Jye. 2000. 38. ORCHIDACEAE. Flora of Taiwan, second edition (台灣植物誌第二版). 5: 729.

    Referance

    Dressler, R. L. 1993. Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family. Dioscorides Press, Oregon.. p.314pp.

    GENERA

  • Acampe  脆蘭屬
  • Acanthephippium  罈花蘭屬
  • Agrostophyllum  禾葉蘭屬
  • Amitostigma  雛蘭屬
  • Androcorys  兜蕊蘭屬
  • Ania  綠花安蘭屬
  • Anoectochilus  開唇蘭 (金線蘭) 屬
  • Aphyllorchis  無葉蘭屬
  • Appendicula  竹葉蘭屬
  • Arachnis  龍爪蘭屬
  • Arundina  葦草蘭屬
  • Bletilla  白及屬
  • Brachycorythis  苞葉蘭屬
  • Bulbophyllum  豆蘭 (捲瓣蘭) 屬
  • Calanthe  根節蘭屬
  • Cephalanthera  頭蕊蘭屬
  • Cephalantheropsis  肖頭蕊蘭屬
  • Chamaeanthus  低藥蘭屬
  • Cheirostylis  指柱蘭 (叉柱蘭) 屬
  • Chiloschista  大蜘蛛蘭屬
  • Chrysoglossum  黃唇蘭屬
  • Cleisostoma  閉口蘭屬
  • Collabium  柯麗白蘭屬
  • Corybas  盔蘭屬
  • Corymborkis  管花蘭屬
  • Cremastra  馬鞭蘭屬
  • Crepidium  
  • Cryptostylis  隱柱蘭屬
  • Cymbidium  蘭蕙屬
  • Cypripedium  喜普鞋蘭屬
  • Cyrtosia  肉果蘭屬
  • Dactylorhiza  
  • Dendrobium  石斛屬
  • Dendrochilum  穗花一葉蘭屬
  • Didymoplexiella  錨柱蘭屬
  • Didymoplexis  鬼蘭屬
  • Dienia  
  • Diploprora  倒吊蘭屬
  • Disperis  雙袋蘭屬
  • Epipactis  鈴蘭屬
  • Epipogium  上鬚蘭屬
  • Eria  絨蘭屬
  • Erythrodes  細筆蘭屬
  • Erythrorchis  蔓莖山珊瑚屬
  • Eulophia  芋蘭屬
  • Flickingeria  暫花蘭屬
  • Galeola  山珊瑚屬
  • Gastrochilus  松蘭屬
  • Gastrodia  赤箭屬 (天麻屬)
  • Geodorum  地寶蘭屬
  • Goodyera  斑葉蘭屬
  • Habenaria  玉鳳蘭屬
  • Hancockia  漢考克蘭屬
  • Haraella  香蘭屬
  • Hayata  早田蘭屬
  • Hemipilia  玉山一葉蘭屬
  • Herminium  零餘子草屬
  • Hetaeria  伴蘭屬
  • Holcoglossum  撬唇蘭屬
  • Hylophila  袋唇蘭屬
  • Lecanorchis  皿柱蘭屬
  • Liparis  羊耳蒜屬
  • Luisia  金釵蘭屬
  • Malaxis  軟葉蘭屬
  • Microtis  韭葉蘭屬
  • Myrmechis  金唇蘭屬
  • Neottia  鳥巢蘭屬
  • Nervilia  脈葉蘭屬
  • Oberonia  莪白蘭屬
  • Oberonioides  
  • Odontochilus  齒唇蘭屬
  • Oreorchis  山蘭屬
  • Pachystoma  粉口蘭屬
  • Papilionanthe  台灣萬代蘭屬
  • Paraphaius  
  • Peristylus  闊蕊蘭屬
  • Phaius  鶴頂蘭屬
  • Phalaenopsis  蝴蝶蘭屬
  • Pholidota  石山桃屬
  • Phreatia  芙樂蘭屬
  • Pinalia  
  • Platanthera  粉蝶蘭屬
  • Pleione  一葉蘭屬
  • Pogonia  鬚唇蘭屬
  • Pomatocalpa  繡球蘭屬
  • Ponerorchis  小蝶蘭屬
  • Pseudoliparis  
  • Renanthera  
  • Rhomboda  白點伴蘭屬
  • Saccolabiopsis  假囊唇蘭屬
  • Schoenorchis  蘆蘭屬
  • Spathoglottis  苞舌蘭屬
  • Spiranthes  綬草屬
  • Stereosandra  肉藥蘭屬
  • Stigmatodactylus  
  • Styloglossum  
  • Sunipia  寶石蘭屬
  • Taeniophyllum  蜘蛛蘭屬
  • Tainia  杜鵑蘭屬
  • Thelasis  八粉蘭屬
  • Thrixspermum  風蘭屬
  • Tipularia  蠅蘭屬
  • Trichoglottis  毛舌蘭屬
  • Tropidia  摺唇蘭屬
  • Tuberolabium  管唇蘭屬
  • Vanda  萬代蘭屬
  • Vanilla  凡尼蘭屬
  • Vexillabium  旗唇蘭屬
  • Vrydagzynea  二尾蘭屬
  • Yoania  長花柄蘭屬
  • Zeuxine  線柱蘭屬